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EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDEThe Respiratory System- control exchange of gases to provide oxygen for the body and expel carbon dioxide(As you can see in the diagram the trachea leads to the bronchi and then to bronchioles then to the alveoli)—Pulmonary ventilation – moving air into and out of the lungs—External respiration – gas exchange between the lungs and the blood Lungs-Bronchi (have cartilage)- these are the larger tubes extending from the trachea(windpipe)- the function is to conduct air to smaller tubes (smaller tubes are the bronchioles that have alveoli)Alveoli are where gas exchange occurs (between alveolus and capillaries)-because there are over 300 million alveoli in the lungs there is a much larger area for gas exchange to take placeConducting zones DO NOT have alveoli so the bronchi is a conducting zoneRespiratory Zones DO have alveoli so the bronchioles are a respiratory zoneThe Respiratory Membrane is the site of gas exchange, it consists of:- wall of alveolus (have epithelial cells; gas exchange by simple diffusion)- wall of capillaries (have endothelial cells)- interstitial fluid is in between - Look at the picture below (the exchange off gas is CO2 from blood to alveolus and 02 from the alveolus to the blood)- Breathing has two phases (in class he emphasize that breathing is the same as ventilation)- In spiration (inhalation) air into the lungs - Ex piration (exhalation) air exits the lungs- (*Inspiration and expiration are the terms for breathing that will used on the exam)- The thoracic cavity includes the heart and lungs- these correlate in that as blood moves into and out of the air, air is moving in and out of the lungs- Our ribs function to protect internal vital organs; muscle between the ribs (intercostal) allow rib cage to expand during inhalationAtmospheric Pressure is 760mmHg…it takes GREATER than the atmospheric pressure (760mmHg) to move air from inside of the lungs to the outside air (expiration) Diaphragm (skeletal muscle) & Pressure Relationship In Thoracic Cavity- when diaphragm comes down (contraction) pressure DECREASES- when it comes up (relaxation) pressure INCREASES- at rest the diaphragm is doing all of the work - The muscles of the abdomen are the main expiratory muscles (needed when we are not at rest ex. Imagine blowing up a balloon with your mouth!)- contraction of the abdomen increases pressure and pushes the diaphragm up (causing expiration)- relaxing theses muscles causes a decreases in pressureEXHILATION=DIAPHRAGM COMING UP=INCREASES PRESSUREINSPIRATION=DIAPHRAGM COMING DOWN=DECREASED PRESSURE1- at rest the diaphragm is relaxed2- during inspiration the diaphragm is contraction3- during expiration the diaphragm is relaxingF (air flow)= ∆ P (change in pressure)/R (resistance to airflow)-Increased resistance= decreased airflow-Example: mucus in the air tube is causing resistance, airflow decreases and as air tries to flow through, the resistance causes us to cough up the mucusTidal Volume (5oomL)-this is volume of air moving in and out of the lungs during normal inspiration/expiration- “ventilation” is what’s occurring inside of the lungs - anatomical dead space- 150mL of air does not reach alveoli- alveolar air -350mL of air per breath that is needed from the tidal volume- AVR= alveolar ventilationAVR= frequency x (tidal volume – dead space)The frequency is how many breaths* For exam purpose this would be (however many breaths x 350)Remember that the most important gases in the air are NITROGEN AND OXYGEN- Volume is directly related to pressure (meaning that that when volume increases pressure also increases)Partial Pressure Gradients and Gas Solubilites (Internal Respiration)-The partial pressure oxygen (PO2) of venous blood is 40 mm Hg; the partial pressure in the alveoli is 104 mm Hg(In class he said that on the exam the partial pressure of the alveoli is anything closest to 100!)∆ P (change in pressure) for oxygen is about 60 mmHg (100-40 =60)• Carbon dioxide has a lower partial pressure gradient than oxygen:> It is 20 times more soluble membranes than oxygen> It diffuses in equal amounts with oxygen but with a lower partial pressure> It requires lower pressure to get the same amount of diffusion ∆ P is 5mmHg (20 times more soluble membranes)- Oxygen 104 mmHg  blood leaving the capillaries has the same pressure of the alveoli (so it has the same pressure as the previous tissue)- CO2  40 mmHg (lower partial pressure)-Pressure of alveolar sac air is the SAME as the oxygenated blood leaving the pulmonary capillaries-Venous blood has the same partial pressure as the cells (0-40; CO2-45)-compare these points with the diagram below to understand this conceptuallyOxygen Loading into the blood - hemoglobin (hb) is the oxygen-transport protein in the red blood cells-Each hemoglobin can transport 4 molecules of oxygen“saturated” hemoglobin means that all four hemes are bounded to oxygen (02)- 98% saturated arterial blood contains 20 ml oxygen per 100 ml blood (This is 20% of the volume)- As arterial blood flows through capillaries, 5 ml oxygen are released to tissuesOxygen hemoglobin saturation curve(I recommend looking at the curve on the slides 33-37 of the respiratory PowerPoint to get an idea of the relationship between saturation and partial pressure of oxygen)- normal concentrated hemoglobin is 15 grams and each gram can transport 1.3 mL of hemoglobin15 x 1.3 = 20 mL O2 (per 100 mL of blood) 75% saturation = 15mL of oxygen - Metabolism will affect the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve- Increased body temperature= increased delivery of oxygen to the cells (the source of increased body temp doesn’t matter it can be from fever or from exercise) Transport and Exchange of CO2 -(Co2 + H2O H2CO3H+ + HCO3-)more H+(increased acidity)  reaction proceeds to the LEFTmore CO2  reaction proceeds to the RIGHTSO If H+ begins decreasing , carbonic acid will dissociate releasing H+- bicarbonate is the most common way to transport CO2 from systemic capillaries- CO2 is the most important stimulus for Breathing - bicarbonate is the main form of transporting in plasma (ALSO CO2 is mainly travels to the lungs in the form of bicarbonate!)- Bohr effect -At the tissues, as more CO2 enters the blood, more O2 dissociates from hemoglobin- Haldane effect- the lower the PO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) and hb saturation the more CO2 can be carried in the bloodRespiratory Center: medulla oblongata


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