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Study Guide for Quiz 3Tina ThompsonChapter 71) Communication - The process of transferring meanings from sender to receiver.a) On surface appears straightforward, however, many problems can result in failure to transfer meanings correctly.2) Context - Context is information that surrounds a communication and helps convey the messagea) Context plays a key role in explaining many communication differencesb) Messages are often highly coded and implicit in high-context society. i) (e.g., Japan, many Arab countries)c) Messages are often explicit and speaker says precisely what he means in low context society. i) (e.g., U.S. and Canada)3) Verbal Communication Stylesa) Direct and Indirect Stylesi) High-context cultures(1) Messages are implicit and indirect (2) Voice intonation, timing, facial expressions play important roles in conveying informationii) Low-context cultures (1) People often meet only to accomplish objectives(2) Interactions tend to be direct and focused in communicationsb) Affective and Instrumental Stylesi) Affective style(1) Common in collective, high-context cultures(2) It is characterized by language requiring listener to note what is said and observe how message is presented.(3) The meaning is often nonverbal and requires receiver to use intuitive skills to decipher the message.ii) Instrumental style (1) This style is goal oriented and focuses on a sender who clearly lets the other know what he wants other to know.(2) More commonly found in the individualistic, low-context cultures.c) Elaborate, Exacting and Succinct Styles - (Focuses on communication quantity)i) Elaborating Style most popular in high context cultures with a moderate degree of uncertainty avoidance.ii) Exacting Style focuses on precision and the use of the right amount of words to convey a message. (1) More common in low-context, low-uncertainty-avoidance culturesiii) Succinct Style more common in high-context cultures with considerable uncertainty avoidance where people say only a few words and allow understatements, pauses, and silence to convey meaningd) Contextual and Personal Stylesi) Contextual style focuses on the speaker and the relationship of parties.(1) Often associated with high power distance, collective, high-context cultures.ii) Personal style focuses on the speaker and the reduction of barriers between parties. (1) More popular in low-power-distance, individualistic, low-context cultures4) Types of communication flowsa) Downward Communication - Transmission of information from manager to subordinatei) Primary purpose of manager-initiated communication is to convey orders/informationii) Managers use this channel for instructions and performance feedbackiii) Channel facilitates the flow of information to those who need it for operational purposes b) Upward Communication - Transmission of information from subordinate to superiori) Purposes are to provide feedback, ask questions, and obtain assistance.ii) In recent years there has been a call for more upward communication in U.S.iii) In Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore upward communication has long been fact of lifeiv) Outside Asian countries, upward communication not as popular5) Suggestions for communication a) Use the most common words with the most common meanings.b) Select words with few alternative meaningsc) Strictly follow rules of grammar (sometimes…)d) Speak with clear breaks between the wordse) Avoid using esoteric or culturally biased wordsf) Avoid the use of slangg) Don’t use words or expressions requiring listener to form mental imagesh) Mimic cultural flavor of non-native speaker’s languagei) Paraphrase and repeat the basic ideas continuallyj) At the end, test how well the other understands by asking him to paraphrase6) Common communication barriersa) Language barriersb) Cultural barriersi) Be careful not to use generalized statements about benefits, compensation, pay cycles, holidays, and policies in worldwide communication.ii) Most of world uses metric system so include converted weights and measurements in all the communicationsiii) Remember, even in English-speaking countries, words may have different meanings.iv) Letterhead and paper sizes differ worldwidev) The term “dollars” are not unique to U.S. Countries such as: Australia, Bermudian, Canadian, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and New Zealand also use “dollars”. (Clarify which dollar.)7) Perceptual communication barriers (Perception: a person’s view of reality)a) Advertising Messages - How others see us: May be different than we thinki) Countless advertising blunders have been caused because words are misinterpreted by others8) Nonverbal communication - Transfer of meaning through means such as body language and use of physical spacea) Chromatics - Use of color to communicate messagesb) Kinesics - Study of communication through body movement and facial expression(1) Eye contact: aka oculesics(2) Posture(3) Gesturesc) Haptics - Use of bodily contact to communicate messages(1) Example: The “Okay” sign in U.S. means money in Japan, zero in S. France, and an obscene gesture in Brazil. (2) Example: Snapping fingers of both hands is Obscene in France & Belgiumd) Proxemics - The study of the way people use physical space to convey messagesi) Intimate distance used for very confidential communicationsii) Personal distance used for talking with family/close friendsiii) Social distance used to handle most business transactionsiv) Public distance used when calling across room or giving talk to groupe) Chronemics - The way time is used in a culture.i) Monochronic time schedule: Things are done in linear fashion.ii) Polychronic time schedule: People do several things at same time and place a higher value on personal involvement than on getting things done on time.9) Negotiation - Process of bargaining with one more parties in order to arrive at a solution acceptable to all involved.a) Distributive Negotiation - When two parties with opposing goals compete over set valuesb) Integrative Negotiation - When two groups integrate interests, create value, and invest in the agreement (win-win scenario)10) Negotiation types and characteristics11) Steps of the Negotiation Processa) Planningi) What are we doing here?b) Interpersonal relationship buildingi) Who’s involved?c) Exchange of task related informationi) What are the critical issues?d) Persuasioni) How much will I compromise?e) Agreement12) Negotiation tacticsa) Locationb) Time limitsc) Buyer-seller relationshipd)

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FSU MAN 4605 - Study Guide

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