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Study Guide for Quiz 3 Tina Thompson Chapter 7 1 Communication The process of transferring meanings from sender to receiver a On surface appears straightforward however many problems can result in failure to transfer meanings correctly 2 Context Context is information that surrounds a communication and helps convey the message a Context plays a key role in explaining many communication differences b Messages are often highly coded and implicit in high context society i e g Japan many Arab countries c Messages are often explicit and speaker says precisely what he means in low context society i e g U S and Canada 3 Verbal Communication Styles a Direct and Indirect Styles i High context cultures 1 Messages are implicit and indirect 2 Voice intonation timing facial expressions play important roles in conveying information ii Low context cultures 1 People often meet only to accomplish objectives 2 Interactions tend to be direct and focused in communications b Affective and Instrumental Styles i Affective style 1 Common in collective high context cultures 2 It is characterized by language requiring listener to note what is said and observe how message is 3 The meaning is often nonverbal and requires receiver to use intuitive skills to decipher the presented message ii Instrumental style other to know 1 This style is goal oriented and focuses on a sender who clearly lets the other know what he wants 2 More commonly found in the individualistic low context cultures c Elaborate Exacting and Succinct Styles Focuses on communication quantity i Elaborating Style most popular in high context cultures with a moderate degree of uncertainty avoidance ii Exacting Style focuses on precision and the use of the right amount of words to convey a message 1 More common in low context low uncertainty avoidance cultures iii Succinct Style more common in high context cultures with considerable uncertainty avoidance where people say only a few words and allow understatements pauses and silence to convey meaning d Contextual and Personal Styles i Contextual style focuses on the speaker and the relationship of parties 1 Often associated with high power distance collective high context cultures ii Personal style focuses on the speaker and the reduction of barriers between parties 1 More popular in low power distance individualistic low context cultures 4 Types of communication flows a Downward Communication Transmission of information from manager to subordinate i Primary purpose of manager initiated communication is to convey orders information ii Managers use this channel for instructions and performance feedback iii Channel facilitates the flow of information to those who need it for operational purposes b Upward Communication Transmission of information from subordinate to superior i Purposes are to provide feedback ask questions and obtain assistance ii In recent years there has been a call for more upward communication in U S iii In Japan Hong Kong Singapore upward communication has long been fact of life iv Outside Asian countries upward communication not as popular 5 Suggestions for communication a Use the most common words with the most common meanings b Select words with few alternative meanings c Strictly follow rules of grammar sometimes d Speak with clear breaks between the words e Avoid using esoteric or culturally biased words f Avoid the use of slang g Don t use words or expressions requiring listener to form mental images h Mimic cultural flavor of non native speaker s language i Paraphrase and repeat the basic ideas continually j At the end test how well the other understands by asking him to paraphrase 6 Common communication barriers a Language barriers b Cultural barriers i Be careful not to use generalized statements about benefits compensation pay cycles holidays and policies in worldwide communication ii Most of world uses metric system so include converted weights and measurements in all the communications iii Remember even in English speaking countries words may have different meanings iv Letterhead and paper sizes differ worldwide v The term dollars are not unique to U S Countries such as Australia Bermudian Canadian Hong Kong Taiwan and New Zealand also use dollars Clarify which dollar 7 Perceptual communication barriers Perception a person s view of reality a Advertising Messages How others see us May be different than we think i Countless advertising blunders have been caused because words are misinterpreted by others 8 Nonverbal communication Transfer of meaning through means such as body language and use of physical space a Chromatics Use of color to communicate messages b Kinesics Study of communication through body movement and facial expression 1 Eye contact aka oculesics 2 Posture 3 Gestures c Haptics Use of bodily contact to communicate messages 1 Example The Okay sign in U S means money in Japan zero in S France and an obscene gesture in Brazil 2 Example Snapping fingers of both hands is Obscene in France Belgium d Proxemics The study of the way people use physical space to convey messages i Intimate distance used for very confidential communications ii Personal distance used for talking with family close friends iii Social distance used to handle most business transactions iv Public distance used when calling across room or giving talk to group e Chronemics The way time is used in a culture i Monochronic time schedule Things are done in linear fashion ii Polychronic time schedule People do several things at same time and place a higher value on personal involvement than on getting things done on time 9 Negotiation Process of bargaining with one more parties in order to arrive at a solution acceptable to all involved a Distributive Negotiation When two parties with opposing goals compete over set values b Integrative Negotiation When two groups integrate interests create value and invest in the agreement win win scenario 10 Negotiation types and characteristics 11 Steps of the Negotiation Process a Planning i What are we doing here b Interpersonal relationship building i Who s involved c Exchange of task related information i What are the critical issues d Persuasion e Agreement i How much will I compromise 12 Negotiation tactics a Location b Time limits c Buyer seller relationship d Bargaining behaviors i Use of extreme behaviors ii Promises threats and other behaviors iii Nonverbal behaviors Chapter 8 1 Strategic Management a Strategic Management The process of

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FSU MAN 4605 - Study Guide

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