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Test 2 - Study Guide Chapter 41. Culture:a. Definition - Acquired knowledge that people use to interpret experience and generate social behavior. i. This knowledge forms values, creates attitudes, and influences behavior.ii. Culture affects how people think and behaveb. Characteristics Of Culture:i. Learned - Culture is not inherited or biologically based. It is acquired by learning and experience.ii. Shared - People as members of a group, organization, or society share culture. It is not specific to single individuals. iii. Trans-generational - Culture is based on the human cumulative, passed down from one generation to the next.iv. Symbolic - Culture is based on the human capacity to symbolize or use one thing to represent another.v. Patterned - Culture has structure and is integrated. A change in one part will cause changes in another part.vi. Adaptive - Culture is based on the human capacity to change or adapt, as opposed to the more genetically driven adaptive processes of animals. United States Japan Arab CountriesFreedom Belonging Family SecurityIndependence Group Harmony Family HarmonySelf-reliance Collectiveness Parental guidanceEquality Age/seniority AgeIndividualism Group consensus AuthorityCompetition Cooperation CompromiseEfficiency Quality DevotionTime Patience PatienceDirectness Indirectness IndirectnessOpenness Go-between Hospitality2. Values - Basic convictions that people have regarding what is right and wrong, good and bad, important and unimportant. a. These values are learned from the culture in which the individual is brought up, and they help direct the person’s behavior.b. Differences in cultural values often result in varying management practices.U.S Cultural Values Alternative Values Examples Of Affected ManagementIndividuals can influence the future (Where there is a will there is a way)Life follows a preordained course, and human action is determined by the will of God.Planning and SchedulingIndividuals should be realistic in their aspirationsIdeals are to be pursued regardless of what is reasonable.Goal setting and career development.We must work hard to accomplish our objectivesHard work is not the only prerequisite for success. Wisdom, luck, and time are also requiredMotivation and reward system.A primary obligation of an employee is to the organizationIndividual employees have a primary obligation to their family and friends Loyalty, commitment, and motivationEmployees can be removed if they do not preform wellThe removal of an employee from a position involves a great loss of prestige and will rarely be done.Promotion3. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions:a. Hofstede identified 4 dimensions, and later a 5th dimension of culture that helps explain how and why people from various cultures behave as they do. i. This study was conducted on the company IBMii. This research has been criticized because of its focus on just one company. b. Power Distance - the extent to which powerful members of institutions and organizations accept that power is distributed unequally. 1. High Power Distance Countries: People blindly obey superiors, centralized, tall structures. (e.g., Mexico, South Korea, India) 2. Low Power Distance Countries: Flatter, decentralized structures, smaller ratio of supervisor to employee. (e.g., Austria, Finland, Ireland)ii. Example: Organizations in low power-distance countries generally will become decentralized and have a flatter organizational structure. In contrast, organizations in high power-distance countries will tent to be centralized and have tall organizational structures. c. Uncertainty Avoidance - is the extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these. 1. High Uncertainty Avoidance Countries: high need for security, strong belief in experts and their knowledge; structure organizational activities, more written rules, less managerial risk taking (e.g., Germany, Japan, Spain) 2. Low Uncertainty Avoidance Countries: people more willing to accept risks of the unknown, less structured organizational activities, fewer written rules, more managerial risk taking, higher employee turnover, more ambitious employees (e.g., Denmark andGreat Britain)d. Individualism/Collectivism i. Individualism - The tendency of people to look after themselves and their immediate family only. ii. Collectivism - The tendency of people to belong to groups or collectives and to look after each other in exchange for loyalty. 1. High Individualism Countries: Wealthier countries, protestant work ethic, greater individual initiative, promotions based on market value (e.g., U.S., Canada, Sweden)2. High Collectivism Countries: Poorer countries, less support of Protestant work ethic, less individual initiative, promotions based on seniority (e.g., Indonesia, Pakistan)e. Masculinity/Femininity i. Masculinity - A situation in which the dominant values in society are success, money, and things.ii. Femininity - A situation in which the dominant values in society are caring for others and the quality of life.1. High Masculine Countries: stress earnings, recognition, advancement, challenge, wealth; high job stress (e.g., Germanic countries)2. High Feminine Countries: emphasize caring for others and quality of life; cooperation, friendly atmosphere., employment security, group decision making; low job stress (e.g., Norway)4. Specific v. Diffusea. Specific Culture - Is one in which individuals have a large public space they readily let others enter and share, and a small private space they guard closely and share with only close friends and associates. b. Diffuse Culture - One in which public space and private space are similar in size and individuals guard their public space carefully, because entry into public space affords entry into private space as well.Finish V1. High Specific Cultures: People are often invited into a person’s open public space. Individuals in these cultures often are open and extroverted. separation work and personal life (e.g., Austria, U.K., U.S.)2. High Diffuse Cultures: People are not quickly invited into a persons open public space, because once they are in, there is easy entry into the private space as well. Individuals in these cultures often appear to be indirect and introverted, and work and private life are closely linked. (e.g., Venezuela, China, Spain) 5. Hofstede, Trompenaars, GLOBEa. GLOBE - A multicultural study and evaluation of cultural

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FSU MAN 4605 - Test 2 - Study Guide

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