Unformatted text preview:

Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 1 Culture a Definition Acquired knowledge that people use to interpret experience and generate social behavior i This knowledge forms values creates attitudes and influences behavior ii Culture affects how people think and behave b Characteristics Of Culture learning and experience i Learned Culture is not inherited or biologically based It is acquired by ii Shared People as members of a group organization or society share culture It is not specific to single individuals iii Trans generational Culture is based on the human cumulative passed down from one generation to the next iv Symbolic Culture is based on the human capacity to symbolize or use one thing to represent another v Patterned Culture has structure and is integrated A change in one part vi will cause changes in another part Adaptive Culture is based on the human capacity to change or adapt as opposed to the more genetically driven adaptive processes of animals United States Japan Arab Countries Freedom Independence Self reliance Equality Individualism Competition Efficiency Time Directness Openness Belonging Group Harmony Collectiveness Age seniority Group consensus Cooperation Quality Patience Indirectness Go between Family Security Family Harmony Parental guidance Age Authority Compromise Devotion Patience Indirectness Hospitality 2 Values Basic convictions that people have regarding what is right and wrong good and bad important and unimportant a These values are learned from the culture in which the individual is brought up and they help direct the person s behavior b Differences in cultural values often result in varying management practices U S Cultural Values Alternative Values Individuals can influence the future Where there is a will there is a way Individuals should be realistic in their aspirations We must work hard to accomplish our objectives A primary obligation of an employee is to the organization Employees can be removed if they do not preform well Life follows a preordained course and human action is determined by the will of God Ideals are to be pursued regardless of what is reasonable Hard work is not the only prerequisite for success Wisdom luck and time are also required Individual employees have a primary obligation to their family and friends The removal of an employee from a position involves a great loss of prestige and will rarely be done Examples Of Affected Management Planning and Scheduling Goal setting and career development Motivation and reward system Loyalty commitment and motivation Promotion 3 Hofstede s Cultural Dimensions a Hofstede identified 4 dimensions and later a 5th dimension of culture that helps explain how and why people from various cultures behave as they do i This study was conducted on the company IBM ii This research has been criticized because of its focus on just one company b Power Distance the extent to which powerful members of institutions and organizations accept that power is distributed unequally 1 High Power Distance Countries People blindly obey superiors centralized tall structures e g Mexico South Korea India 2 Low Power Distance Countries Flatter decentralized structures smaller ratio of supervisor to employee e g Austria Finland Ireland ii Example Organizations in low power distance countries generally will become decentralized and have a flatter organizational structure In contrast organizations in high power distance countries will tent to be centralized and have tall organizational structures c Uncertainty Avoidance is the extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these 1 High Uncertainty Avoidance Countries high need for security strong belief in experts and their knowledge structure organizational activities more written rules less managerial risk taking e g Germany Japan Spain 2 Low Uncertainty Avoidance Countries people more willing to accept risks of the unknown less structured organizational activities fewer written rules more managerial risk taking higher employee turnover more ambitious employees e g Denmark and Great Britain d Individualism Collectivism i Individualism The tendency of people to look after themselves and their immediate family only ii Collectivism The tendency of people to belong to groups or collectives and to look after each other in exchange for loyalty 1 High Individualism Countries Wealthier countries protestant work ethic greater individual initiative promotions based on market value e g U S Canada Sweden 2 High Collectivism Countries Poorer countries less support of Protestant work ethic less individual initiative promotions based on seniority e g Indonesia Pakistan e Masculinity Femininity i Masculinity A situation in which the dominant values in society are success money and things ii Femininity A situation in which the dominant values in society are caring for others and the quality of life 1 High Masculine Countries stress earnings recognition advancement challenge wealth high job stress e g Germanic countries 2 High Feminine Countries emphasize caring for others and quality of life cooperation friendly atmosphere employment security group decision making low job stress e g Norway 4 Specific v Diffuse a Specific Culture Is one in which individuals have a large public space they readily let others enter and share and a small private space they guard closely and share with only close friends and associates b Diffuse Culture One in which public space and private space are similar in size and individuals guard their public space carefully because entry into public space affords entry into private space as well Finish V 1 High Specific Cultures People are often invited into a person s open public space Individuals in these cultures often are open and extroverted separation work and personal life e g Austria U K U S 2 High Diffuse Cultures People are not quickly invited into a persons open public space because once they are in there is easy entry into the private space as well Individuals in these cultures often appear to be indirect and introverted and work and private life are closely linked e g Venezuela China Spain 5 Hofstede Trompenaars GLOBE a GLOBE A multicultural study and evaluation of cultural attributes and leadership behaviors among more than 17 000 managers from 951 organizations in 62 countries i The Goal of GLOBE The project set out to answer many questions about cultural variables shaping

View Full Document

FSU MAN 4605 - Test 2 - Study Guide

Download Test 2 - Study Guide
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Test 2 - Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Test 2 - Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?