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TCC BSC 2085 - Chapter 1

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Chapter One• Anatomy o The study of internal and external structures of the body parts.o Describes the structures of the body o Ex. How muscle attaches to skeletono Gross Anatomy (macroscopic anatomy)- examines large, visible structureso Surface anatomy- exterior featureso Regional anatomy: body areaso Systematic anatomy- Organ systems Organ Systems- groups of organs that function together in coordination Ex. Skeletal system, muscular system, etc.o Developmental anatomy- from conception to death Embryology- study of early developmental processes. Ex. Pathological anatomy, Radiographic anatomy, Surgical anatomyo Microscopic anatomy- examines cells and moleculeso Cytology- study of cells and their structures (“cyt” = cell)o Histology- study of tissues and their structures• Physiology o The study of how living organisms perform their vital functions.o Functions of anatomical structures; individual/cooperative functions.o Ex. How muscles contracto Cell physiology – processes within and between cellso Organ physiology- functions of specific organs o Systematic physiology- functions of an organ systemo Pathological physiology- effects of diseases • Levels of Organization:o Chemical and Molecular Levels  Cellular Level  Tissue Level Organ Level  Organ System Level  Organism Level• A Simplified Body Plano External environment will never be in direct contact with the internal environment separated by epithelium• Body fluid and compartments o The Human body is divided into compartments, each containing fluids. All compartments are separated by epithelial membranes, which are also semi permeable. Transport occurs between compartments.o Bodily fluids are essential for survival of the cellso Intracellular fluid (IFC)-o Total Body Water (TBW)- water and dissolved material of body Includes solutions within calls and solutions surrounding cellso Extracellular fluid (ECF)o Plasma- fluid around blood cellso Interstitial fluid (ISF)- fluid surrounding the compartments• Homeostasis o Refers to the existence of a stable internal environment.o Conditions of he internal environment that are regulated include temperature, volume and composition.o Requires organ system integrationo Disruption of homeostasis is the basis for disease and death.• Homeostasis Regulationo Receptor-sensor that is sensitive to a particular stimulus or environmental change.o Control center- receives and processes the information supplied by the receptoro Effector- cell/organ that responds to the commands of the control center; activity either opposes or enhances the stimulus.• Autoregulation- immediate/automatic response to some environmental; tissue, organ or organ system level.• Extrinsic Regulation-activities of the nervous and endocrine systems; these organs can control or adjust the activities of many other systems simultaneously. • Set Point-expected value of regulated variable; temperature that body loves.• Regulated Variable - examples include speed of car, blood glucose concentration, blood pH, and plasma levels of sodiumo Negative feedback- tends to be self-correcting; if a regulated variable decreases, system responds to make it increase, vice versa.o Positive feedback- initial stimulus produces a response that enhances the original change in conditions. Positive feedback loop- causes a rapid change in a variableChapter two• Atom o Smallest unit of matter• Subatomic particles:o Protons- (+)o Electrons- (-)o Neutrons-(=)• Protons and neutrons have One mass unit, while electrons has a fraction of one mass unit• Opposite charges attract and prevent electrons from falling out of orbit (example of electrical force)• Atomic number- number of protons and electrons, little number above the element symbol on the periodic table.• Atomic weight- actual mass of an atom, little number under element symbol on periodic tableo Units- “amu”• Mole- a quantity with a weight in grams equal to that elements atomic weight• Electron cloud- spherical area around the nucleus where electrons travel• Electron shell:o First electron shell can only hold 2 electrons and has the lowest energy levelo Outer electron shells can hold 8 electrons (2nd and 3rd shells)o The higher the energy level, the lower the attraction (inversely related)• Isotopes- forms of an element that differ in mass and differ in their number of neutrons (same (p+) and (e-), but different (n).• Element- a pure substance composed of atoms of only one kindo 4 most abundant elements are: oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen ,and carbon • Radioactive Decay- breakdown process of radioactive isotopes, gives off particles and energyo Ex. PET scans• Half-life- time required for half of a given amount of isotope to decay• Mass number- total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus• Chemical Bonds• Ionic Bonds- transferring of electronso Ion- an atom with a change Cation (+) Anion (-)o Once the valence electron shells are complete, it cannot interact with another atomo Ionic bonds always have a product with both (+) and (-) chargeso Na + Cl (reactants) NaCl (product)• Covalent Bonds- sharing of electronso Nonpolar covalent bond- equal sharing of electron Shares all electrons Ex. H2o Polar covalent bonds- unequal sharing of electrons Do not share all electrons Ex. H20o Hydrogen bonds- bond between hydrogen and another atom Attraction between the partially positive charge on the hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond and the partially negative charge on an oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine.• Chemical Reactions • Decomposition Reactions- reaction that breaks a molecule into smaller fragmentso Hydrolysis- uses water to break apart a polymer “-lysis”- to break aparto Catabolism- the decomposition reactions of complex molecules within the body’s cells and tissues • Synthesis reactions- opposite of decompositiono Dehydration synthesis- remove water to create larger molecule(polymer) Removes water between two monomers to bond and form a polymer Anabolism – synthesis of new molecules within the body’s cells and tissues• Exchange reactions- pats of the reacting molecules are shuffled around to produce new productso AB + CD  AD + CB• Reversible reactions• Carbohydrates o Organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen• Monosaccharide- one simple sugar Ex. Glucose, fructose, galactose Glucose- most important


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