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Chapter One Anatomy o The study of internal and external structures of the body parts o Gross Anatomy macroscopic anatomy examines large visible o Describes the structures of the body o Ex How muscle attaches to skeleton structures o Surface anatomy exterior features o Regional anatomy body areas o Systematic anatomy Organ systems Organ Systems groups of organs that function together in coordination Ex Skeletal system muscular system etc o Developmental anatomy from conception to death Embryology study of early developmental processes Ex Pathological anatomy Radiographic anatomy Surgical anatomy o Microscopic anatomy examines cells and molecules o Cytology study of cells and their structures cyt cell o Histology study of tissues and their structures Physiology o The study of how living organisms perform their vital functions o Functions of anatomical structures individual cooperative functions o Ex How muscles contract o Cell physiology processes within and between cells o Organ physiology functions of specific organs o Systematic physiology functions of an organ system o Pathological physiology effects of diseases Levels of Organization o Chemical and Molecular Levels Cellular Level Tissue Level Organ Level Organ System Level Organism Level A Simplified Body Plan o External environment will never be in direct contact with the internal environment separated by epithelium Body fluid and compartments o The Human body is divided into compartments each containing fluids All compartments are separated by epithelial membranes which are also semi permeable Transport occurs between compartments o Bodily fluids are essential for survival of the cells o Intracellular fluid IFC o Total Body Water TBW water and dissolved material of body Includes solutions within calls and solutions surrounding cells o Extracellular fluid ECF o Plasma fluid around blood cells o Interstitial fluid ISF fluid surrounding the compartments Homeostasis o Refers to the existence of a stable internal environment o Conditions of he internal environment that are regulated include temperature volume and composition o Requires organ system integration o Disruption of homeostasis is the basis for disease and death Homeostasis Regulation o Receptor sensor that is sensitive to a particular stimulus or environmental change receptor o Control center receives and processes the information supplied by the o Effector cell organ that responds to the commands of the control center activity either opposes or enhances the stimulus Autoregulation immediate automatic response to some environmental tissue organ or organ system level Extrinsic Regulation activities of the nervous and endocrine systems these organs can control or adjust the activities of many other systems simultaneously Set Point expected value of regulated variable temperature that body loves Regulated Variable examples include speed of car blood glucose concentration blood pH and plasma levels of sodium o Negative feedback tends to be self correcting if a regulated variable decreases system responds to make it increase vice versa o Positive feedback initial stimulus produces a response that enhances the original change in conditions Positive feedback loop causes a rapid change in a variable Chapter two Atom o Smallest unit of matter Subatomic particles o Protons o Electrons o Neutrons mass unit of electrical force Protons and neutrons have One mass unit while electrons has a fraction of one Opposite charges attract and prevent electrons from falling out of orbit example Atomic number number of protons and electrons little number above the element symbol on the periodic table Atomic weight actual mass of an atom little number under element symbol on periodic table o Units amu Electron shell level Mole a quantity with a weight in grams equal to that elements atomic weight Electron cloud spherical area around the nucleus where electrons travel o First electron shell can only hold 2 electrons and has the lowest energy o Outer electron shells can hold 8 electrons 2nd and 3rd shells o The higher the energy level the lower the attraction inversely related Isotopes forms of an element that differ in mass and differ in their number of neutrons same p and e but different n Element a pure substance composed of atoms of only one kind o 4 most abundant elements are oxygen nitrogen hydrogen and carbon Radioactive Decay breakdown process of radioactive isotopes gives off particles and energy o Ex PET scans Half life time required for half of a given amount of isotope to decay Mass number total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Chemical Bonds Ionic Bonds transferring of electrons o Ion an atom with a change Cation Anion another atom o Once the valence electron shells are complete it cannot interact with o Ionic bonds always have a product with both and charges o Na Cl reactants NaCl product Covalent Bonds sharing of electrons o Nonpolar covalent bond equal sharing of electron o Polar covalent bonds unequal sharing of electrons Shares all electrons Ex H2 Do not share all electrons Ex H20 o Hydrogen bonds bond between hydrogen and another atom Attraction between the partially positive charge on the hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond and the partially negative charge on an oxygen nitrogen or fluorine Chemical Reactions Decomposition Reactions reaction that breaks a molecule into smaller fragments o Hydrolysis uses water to break apart a polymer lysis to break apart o Catabolism the decomposition reactions of complex molecules within the body s cells and tissues Synthesis reactions opposite of decomposition o Dehydration synthesis remove water to create larger molecule polymer Removes water between two monomers to bond and form a Anabolism synthesis of new molecules within the body s cells Exchange reactions pats of the reacting molecules are shuffled around to polymer and tissues produce new products o AB CD AD CB Reversible reactions Carbohydrates o Organic molecule that contains carbon hydrogen and oxygen Monosaccharide one simple sugar Ex Glucose fructose galactose Glucose most important metabolic fuel in the body Isomers two molecules with the same chemical formula but different structural arrangements o Ex Table sugar Disaccharides two simple sugars o Link due to dehydration synthesis o Ex Sucrose lactose maltose Polysaccharides many simple sugars create a chain o Ex Cellulose not digestive by animals corn starches glycogen deals with energy preserve o Complex

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TCC BSC 2085 - Chapter 1

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