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Psyc Notes Everything we do is related to areas in psyc o Certain activities area dictated by natural associations eating because of stress or because of the time of day Psychology the study of behavior and mental processes o Behavior overt action and reaction objectively observable o We want to be able to predict behavior emotions cognitions o If we can predict behavior we might be able to control it or alter it Psychologists people better o Content learn about all kinds of interesting things you can relate to understand o Practicality compliments other fields of study and is good for graduate school o Most provides services to people in institutional settings o Rule of thirds o Industrial organizational optimize the productivity of people in a business clinicians academics and administrators in organizations o Basic psyc using the scientific method to gain knowledge about topics in psyc setting to satisfy curiosity o Applied psyc using knowledge to solve and prevent human problems o Not fair to say basic research and applied does not o Psychologists can be both basic and applied There are numerous areas of study and schools of thought Aristotle unlike Plato he placed emphasis on observing and experiencing the world Descartes human and animal behavior is reflexive automatic and subject to natural external causes o Humans also have a mind that is not controlled by natural laws mind body dualism tickling or pricking your finger causes a natural reaction First Psychologists o Wilhelm Wundt first lab in Germany Emphasized structuralism study of immediate conscious experience Used introspection self examination of mental processes o William James Amurican Emphasized functionalism study of how the mind works and why we behave think the way we do Increased emphasis on behavior and on practical applications of psychology 5 perspectives o Psychodynamic Freud focus on the unconscious clinical problems due to unconscious conflicts o Behaviorists Skinner focus on observable behavior behavior changes through learning not concerned with the mind o Humanistic focus on self concept realizing our full potential and the challenges in doing so o Cognitive unlike behaviorism focuses on what is happening in the mind thoughts information processing memory o Neuroscience understanding of the brain and sections of the brain and what they do influence of the nervous system brain spinal cord on behavior Cant stay in a relationship for more than 6 weeks Has commitment issues o Psychodynamics Trusting people unconsciously look for unresolved conflicts with parent or close family o Behaviorist See what happened in past relationships teach the rewards of being in a relationship encourage smaller commitments o Humanistic teach that giving trust leads to self actualization o Cognitive focus on thoughts and fears also when why o Neuroscience look at the brain physiology of fear stress Psychology is a science o It can defy common sense expand on it and or give fuller explanations for things that make common sense o Like people do attract o Small Increments are better for studying If you need help is it better to be around a small or big group o Small group is better more focused response o In a larger group diffusion of responsibility everyone assumes someone else will take action bystander effect Scientific Method OHDAC o Observation can be anything o Hypothesis a tentative statement expressing a relationship between variables Theory collection of interrelated ideas and observations that explain and predict o Design a study identify important variables o Analyze and collect data Empiricism the observation and recording of data requires stats o Conclusions was your hypothesis correct Neuroscience o The nervous system gather info decides on a course of action and responds o 3 neural pathways Sensory neurons afferent ascending pathways to brain hearing something or seeing something or other senses Motor neurons efferent descending pathways from the brain responding to the senses Interneurons link between sensory and motor neurons found in the brain and spinal cord o Neuron Messages go from dendrites through the axon Axon the spine of the neuron transmits electrical impulse from cell body down the length of the neuron Dendrites the tips of the neuron receive messages from other neurons Soma the body of the neuron Synaptic terminals store neuron transmitters and release them to activate Myelin sheath lipid deposit that insulates the axon makes transmission other neurons faster and more efficient When the neuron fires it creates a electrical current that starts at the axon and travels to the terminals Current is called an Action Potential All or none law either neuron fires or it doesn t AP is always same strength An axon when not fired it is negatively charged moves from high concentration to low concentration sodium and potassium when not fired the membrane is impermeable When fired 1 a change in membrane permeability allows charged sodium ions to rush in 2 a change in permeability allows charged potassium ions to rush out called depolarization No neuron exists on its own Synapse gap between neurons chemicals travel across this gap to pass along the transmission Neurotransmitters can either be excitatory or inhibitory Asito choline dopamine happiness serotonin sleep regulation norepinephrine emotional arousal see the rest on slide show At rest axons are negative and when firing they are positive o Peripheral nervous system Sympathetic increased heart rate increased breathing rate increased blood glucose energy activates flight or fight Parasympathetic decreased heart rate and breathing rate glucose to fat stimulate digestion contract pupils contract bladder o Central Nervous system Spinal cord reflex responses relay to from brain Brain lower structures toward spinal cord carry out basic life processes higher structures carry out complex cognitive functions mostly forebrain Hindbrain Midbrain Medulla heart rate and breathing Cerebellum balance and coordination Pons sleep and arousal balance and some breathing Midbrain above pons helps vision aids basic movements for sex and aggression Forebrain Sub cortical Thalamus relay station Hypothalamus autonomic info homeostasis Limbic system emotion center o Hippocampus vital for memory learning o Amygdala emotions like fear Outside layer of the brain the cerebral cortex 2 3 mm thick Wrinkled and convoluted much surface layer Controls complex and abstract thought 4 layers

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Virginia Tech PSYC 2004 - Lecture notes

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