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Final Exam Review-Lectures 10-16The exam will consist of multiple choice questions, including T/F and matching, and short answers. There may be a few essay options as well (indicated in this document). I would show all of the potential essay options and ask you to complete 1-2 of them in the actual exam. All of these may not appear on the exam, but I will draw all of my exam material from what I’ve given you in this review. Please note that on definitions or for more detail, in my lectures I always include notes under the slides! If you do not see a definition on the slide itself, I suggest you check the notes. Lecture 10- (Marine Systems and Resources I)1. Know that oceans cover 71% of Earth’s surface2. Know that water is the universal solvent (dissolves 52 of 97 elements found in nature)3. Know definition of salinitya. Concentration of dissolved solids4. Know what our worldwide average salinity is a. 34%-37% 5. Know definitions of brine and brackish watera. Brine- salinity greater than averageb. Brackish- salinity below average6. Be able to explain where salinity rates would be higher or lower in the ocean, and why (try slide 10)a. around the equator, lots of precipitation through the year dilutes ocean water and lowers salinity from averageb. in subtropical oceans, evaporation rates are higher so salinity is higher than average7. Know what heat capacity is, and how it relates to watera. It takes more energy to warm water than it does airb. Water has a high heat capacity 8. Know what the driving force behind surface currents isa. Frictional drag from the wind9. Know definition of gyresa. The circulation systems around subtropical high-pressure cells 10. Be able to give me two reasons why plastic is harmful to marine systems and lifea. Plastic items dumped into the sea harm or kill wildlifei. Wildlife mistake it for food b. Plastic is non-biodegradablei. Drifts for decadesii. Breaks into tiny pieces 1. photodegrades11. Know definition of photodegradea. tiny pieces of non-biodegradable material12. Know definitions of upwelling and downwellinga. Upwellingi. The vertical flow of cold, deep water toward the surfaceb. Downwellingi. oxygen-rich water sinks, providing oxygen for deep-water life13. Know definition of thermohaline circulationa. a worldwide current system i. warmer fresher water moves along the surfaceii. cooler, saltier, denser water moves beneath the surface14. Be able to explain how melting ice at our poles could affect this thermohaline circulation (slides 25, *29-30)a.15. Know definition of ENSO (and know what it stands for-El Nino-Southern Oscillation)a. A systematic shift in atmospheric pressure, sea surface temperature, and ocean circulation16. If given descriptions, be able to identify if conditions describe El Nino or La Ninaa.17. Be able to list two effects of El Nino (be specific-i.e., coastal fishing industries in East Pacific decline in El Nino…several examples starting from slide 38)18. Know if there are fewer hurricanes in the Atlantic during El NinoLecture 11-(Marine Resources II-Marine Pollution)1. Know definition of nonpoint source pollution a. Comes from all overi. Oil, plastic, chemicals, excess nutrients2. Know that the Deepwater Horizon oil spill is the largest accidental petroleum incident in recorded history3. Know that most oil pollution comes from non-point sources-be able to list two sources of non-point oil pollutiona. Small boat leaks, runoff4. Know what the U.S. Pollution Act is, and what year it was enacteda. Created a $1 billion prevention and clean up fund; requires that all ships have double hulls by 2015b. Enacted in 19905. Know definitions of bioaccumulation and biomagnificationa. Bioaccumulation- the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides or other organi chemical in a organismb. Biomagnification- increase in concentration of a substance that occurs in a good chain as a consequence of persistence.6. Be able to describe what harmful algal blooms and red tide area. Algal blooms- nutrients increase algae that produce powerful toxinsb. Red tide- algae that produce red pigments that discolor the water7. Be able to give me two harmful effects of red tidesa. Illness and death to wildlife and humansb. Economic loss to fishing industries and beach tourism 8. Know that overharvesting is the worst marine problem9. Know what percentage of fish populations are overexploited and at potential risk of extinction (from lecture; slide 11)a. 28% of fish are over exploited and at risk of extinction10. Be able to distinguish between different types of fish-catching techniques-driftnetting, long-lines, and trawlinga. Driftnets- long lines of nets that are used to catch schools of herring, sardines, mackerel, sharks and shrimpb. Long-lines- used for fishing tuna and swordfishc. Trawling- used for pelagic fish and groundfish11. Know what factory fishing isa. Where huge vessels use powerful technologies to capture fish in huge volumesi. Even processing and freezing their fish at sea12. Know definition of bycatcha. The accidental capture of animals13. Know what the Marine Mammal Protection Act is, and what year it was enacted (slide 15 notes-gives you a detailed description of this act)a. Forced fleets to try and free dolphinsb. Enacted in 197214. Be able to give me two reasons that our global catch has remained stable for the past 20 years, masking population declines (in lecture)a. Fishing fleets have traveled farther to reach less-fished areasb. Fleets fish in deeper waters (at 250m)c. Fleets spend more time fishing and set more nets15. Be able to briefly tell me what ‘fishing down the food chain’ meansa. as fishing increases, the size and age of fish caught declineb. as species become to rare to fish, fleets target more abundant species16. Be able to distinguish between Marine protected areas (MPAs) and Marine reservesa. MPA- along the coastlines of developed countriesi. still allow fishing or other extractive activitiesb. Marine Reserves- areas where fishing is prohibitedi. leave ecosystems intact, without human interferenceii. improve fisheriesLecture 12-(Freshwater Resources)1. Know that freshwater makes up only 2.5% of water on Earth, and that the majority of it is locked up in ice2. Know definition of watershed (drainage basin)a. The area of land drained by a river system3. Know definition of ripariana. Riverside areas that are productive and species-rich4. Be able to briefly explain why floodplains are good places for

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