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Federal vs. Local Schooling o No federal education policy o Secondary school is much more demanding in other industrialized countries (performance in secondary school is much more significant in determining what kind of job an adolescent will obtain in adulthood)o Adolescents in non-industrialized countries do not attend/drop out of secondary school for family labor purposes o Secondary School  middle, junior, and high school. A place that contains all sorts of students, with a vast range of interests and abilities. o History of Schooling: passed a law requiring attendance 100 years ago o Comprehensive high school  the form of American high school that arose in the 1920’s and is still the main form today, which encompasses a wide range of functions and included classes in general education, college preparation, and vocational training.  90% of adolescents are now in high school today o In non-industrialized societies today, schooling is only for the elite. o Most adolescents are usually engaged in productive work rather than attending school (learn skills from labor needed by families)No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) o Requires states to develop assessments in basic skills o Criticisms:  Gap between minorities has not changed Children lose creativity, critical thinking  Kill and Drill  only focused on memorizing Characteristics of Effective Schooling o Size  schools have been getting bigger since the 1800s o Pros: diverse range of classeso Cons: students feel less attachment to their teachers and to the school as a whole (leads to less motivation) Best school size is 500 to 1,000 students  Class size doesn’t seem to matter for the most part (20 – 40 is average)• Some say reducing size to 20 would be beneficial for minority students/students with academic difficulties (but it would cost schools a lot of money)Instructional Techniques o Direct Instruction  traditional method, teacher centered, better gradeso Constructivism  child centered, teachers and learners are partners, teachers use child’s zone of proximal development, reciprocal teaching (take turns leading, community of learners, critical thinking and positive attitudes towards school Motivationo Extrinsic Motivation  focus on rewards and punishment o Intrinsic Motivation  focus on internal factors like pride, challenge, effort (used more) o How to set up a classroom that focuses on intrinsic motivation: Provide choices in assignments/projects Encourage autonomy in classroom activities/homework  Decrease extrinsic motivation by evaluating in private Transitions o Most results favor the 8-4 plan (k-8, 9-12) due to self-esteem and school attendance o Other options  6:3:4, 5:3:4, 6:3:3 (some favor 6:3:3 – more positive comments about transition to junior high in regards to peer relationships, academics, and independence for seventh-graders)o Either way, transition is stressful:  Puberty and body changes Increased responsibility and independence from parents Change from small class to large one  Change from one teacher to many  Change to larger, heterogeneous set of peers  Top dog phenomenon (moving from the top position in one part of school to the lowest in the next part) Middle school is just not ideal (too much emphasis on teacher control, they have negative views about adolescents)School Climate o The quality of interactions between teachers and students, including how teachers interact with students, what sort of expectations and standards they have for students, and what kinds of methods are used in the classroom o Important indicator of adolescents’ school experienceso Private Schools rated more favorably on various aspects of school climate (lower levels of depression/behavior problems, higher levels of motivation/participation) Authoritarian Teaching  maintaining order/obedience (teachers are mostly punitive/disciplinary)  Authoritative Teaching  supportive and warm with clear expectations Engagement o The quality of being psychologically committed to learning, including being alert and attentive in the classroom and making a diligent effort to learno Engagement is the expectation rather than the norm in the school experience of American adolescents High proportion of students not only fall short of an ideal engagement, but a strikingly disengaged during their time in school (physical present but psychologically absent)High School Dropouts o By 2002, only 10% had not obtained a high school diploma by age 24o Although 30% leave high school before graduating, many obtain a GEDo White  8% dropouto Native American  10% dropout o Black  12% dropouto Latino  12% dropout  Males are more likely than females to drop out (except Asian Americans)o Dropping out is usually a culmination of many years of school problems (not a sudden event) o Likely to repeat grades, have low grades, behavior problems, low test scoreso Likely to have aggressive, active, high-sensation-seeking personalities (difficult to endure typical classroom environment)o Likely to have learning disabilities, teenage girls having children o Likely to have parents as high school dropouts, come from families who live in poverty as well as single-parent families  Rates are higher in larger schools with a negative school climate (lack of dedication and support from teachers, no order in classroom environment)o Dropping out is related to a variety of present and future problems o Substance useo Depression and other physiological problems o Limited, low-paying jobs o Intervention Programs to reduce the drop out rates have been created (alternative schools for children of high risk)  requires attention from trained counselors, low student-teacher ratios, and starting in middle-schoolo Early reading problemso Tutoringo Counseling/mentoring o Creating communities that care Worko Teens have worked throughout history (the kind of work has changed)o Early adolescence  8th grade girls babysit, 8th grade boys do yard work (not very formal, not a big time commitment)o Late adolescence  restaurant and retail (more formal and time consuming, repetitive and monotonous, not very challenging or skill building, work is rarely connected to school, no close relationship to boss, no connection to future career) Sophomores work 15 hours  Seniors work 20 hours o US has an increased rate compared to other industrialized countries (80% of teens have

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FSU CHD 4251 - Federal vs. Local Schooling

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