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Key Terms• Nationality – where a person retains citizenship• Race – originated by northern Europeans; assumption of innate differences based on real or imagined physical characteristics, a social construct. Not necessarily a matter of biology, but is a historical category and construct.• Johann Blumenbach (1752-1840) – set up a racial categorical system, first person to use the word Caucasian and put them at the top of his system.• Susie Guillory Phipps – in the 1980s couldn’t get the race on her birth certificate changed from Colored to White, as she saw herself and what she had believed herself to be.o Louisiana “Blood” Law – 1/32 African American blood would have you designated as “Colored”• Ethnicity – comes from Greek ethnos, or a band of people living together or a type of nations. Northern Europeans come into the mix and change it from ethnos to ethnic. Ethnic was given a negative connotation, equated to heathen and alien. Early on, largely associated with Eastern Europeans. In early 20th century social scientists went back to the ethnos meaning. Overall it is a categorization of people based on factors like shares cultural values, nationality, language, religion, and gender roles. • Racial hierarchies – the ranking of, and substantial inequality amongst groups that are physically distinct, or different. Northern Europeans put themselves at the top of the food chain and became the dominant group, • The People of India (1868) – science, photography, statistics used to put Indian societies within a racial hierarchy, and put it into an exhibition called the People of India. Treated like scientific objects and was very dehumanizing; • Racialization – process of placing racial groups in a stratified list, dominant group places others they believe to be subordinate in a certain order.• Ideological racism – an ideology that considers a group’s unchangeable physical characteristics to be linked in a direct, casual way to psychological or intellectual characteristics, and based on these qualities, they are separated into superior and inferior groups.• Institutional racism – institutionalized practices, by law or social custom, which negatively (and deliberately) affect members of a subordinate racial group, such as slavery and Jim Crow laws.• WASP – white Anglo-Saxon protestant, group which every other group is measured against. WASPs either incorporate or reject new groups• Gender – the social organization of sexual difference; varies across cultures and over time. Gender is a constant, always changing variable of social organization. It is not male or female exclusively.• Three Waves (Eras) of Immigration – differences include countries and points of origin, and also the time period in which they immigrated. Similarities include “push” factors, escaping problems in homeland, and new opportunities. Post-Colonialism and the fall of the USSR – created a bunch of new countries and immigration issues in E. Europe. Every time a new immigrant group arrives Americans react with hostility, worry about their impact on society, culture, economy, etc. Immigration has been the most influential force on American history and values.o Formative Wave (1607-1820) – beginning of immigration to North America. English to America, Africans forcibly immigrated. Diverse Europeans, majority voluntarily immigrated. o First Wave (1820-1880) – influx of Irish and German immigrants. Everyone was having revolutions at this time, so a lot of Europeans were coming over, also Chinese. End of wave = passing of first immigrant legislation, the Chinese Exclusion Act.o Second Wave (1880-1920) – southern Italians, Eastern Europeans (the “new” immigrant), high number of Mexican immigrants. This wave ends because of strict immigration laws again, but instead of being geared toward one specific group, they passed a quota law.• Four Types of Migrationo Voluntary – immigrated freely, diverse reasons including religion freedom or to escape prosecution, land ownership and new opportunities, and adventure. A few examples are Puritans, Jews, etc.o Forced – mostly occurred during formative wave. Forcible removal of Africans upon threat of death or imprisonment. Also convicts.o Economic/Labor – immigrated specifically for work. Migrated after 1820 after the formative wave. Poor conditions in homeland, few job opportunities, height of industrialization in US. In US they could start new life and earn enough money to return home and invest it into family back home. Examples: Chinese.o Displaced Persons – refugees escaping homeland for a specific reason, like war, political situation and upheaval like revolutions and regime changes. Cold War, Cuban Revolution. Example: Alexander Godunov is a very famous ballet dancer who was touring in the US and tried to get asylum. He disappeared in the US, and the USSR KGB packed everyone including his wife back on a plane back home. Since he had requested asylum for both he and his wife, the plane was stopped and there was a stand-off for days. • Push and Pull Factors – reasons why a person is going to leave their country.o Push – reason originates in homeland.o Pull – something that draws you into another land.• Assimilation – process by which one cultural group adopts some or all of the cultural practices of another group. For WASPs, the ideal method of dealing with new immigrant groups.• Acculturation – the exchange of cultural practices between two groups. Each group is changed, but still retains their own distinctive identity.• Generational Differences – 1st generation is very much steeped in cultural practices of back home, while 2nd generation is far more assimilated and American. 3rd generation wants to resurrect and are more interested in their cultural legacy. • Three Philosophies of Race and Ethnicityo Anglo-Conformity – conforming to the English way of doing things. The idea that America would only survive if new immigrants adopted the dominant, WASP traditions and values; full assimilation.o Melting-Pot Ideal – the idea that all races, cultures, backgrounds, religions and practices would meld together in America, forming a new whole; the assimilation of everybody. Inorder for this to happen, everyone would have to lose their own identity, their family’s history, for this new culture.o Cultural Pluralism – celebrates each ethnic group’s cultural

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FSU AMH 2095 - Key Terms

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