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Quiz 3 – February 19, 2013 (from Homeworks 5-6 and Feb. 5, 7, 12, and 14 lectures)1. What is a plankton? A drifting organism2. Why are phytoplankton critical for marine life? D. All of these choices (They are large contribution to food webs; they generate massive amounts of atmospheric oxygen; They are able to bind billions of tons of carbon into carbohydrates) photosynthetic organism is found in the tissues of coral? A. DinoflagellatesWhat is usually responsible for a harmful algal bloom? D. DinoflagellatesA highly biological productive ocean surface appears chalky; what plankton is likely successful here? C. C. CoccolithophoresWhat do researchers use to directly measure the rate of productivity? C. Carbon-14What is essential in the restoration and continuation of photosynthetic productivity in the ocean? A. UpwellingWhy is photosynthesis inhibited at the very top layer of the ocean surface? B. There is too much lightWhat is the most abundant larger zooplankton? Also called “cows of the sea” C. Copepods10. What is created due to the decomposition of falling biological debris and zooplankton (fecal) activity? B. Oxygen Minimum Zone11. What are diatom shells made of? Silica12. Which of the following are DIC? Sigma 13C; H2CO3; TIC13. Most phytoplankton are plants. TRUE14. Which of the following are true of chemotrophs? Autotrophs that use chemical energy to fix carbonFor questions 15-17, use the graph below to answer the questions.15. Which nutrient in the graph above is regenerated faster? A (When concentration is increasing faster, that means it is also regenerated faster)16. In which zone is net remineralization occurring? D17. Which characteristic(s) are true of the nutrients A and B? There is an upward direction of fluxFor questions 18-21, use the graph below to answer the questions.18. Which of the following is true of zone A in the graph above? Sunlit, autotrophic, photosynthesis, shell formation, wind-driven circulation, oxygen production, net carbon fixation 19. In which zone in the graph above does consumption result in an oxygen minimum zone? C20. Which of the following is true of zone D in the graph above? No sunlight, heterotrophic, shell dissolution, respiration dominates, particle decomposition (remineralization), density-driven circulation (thermohaline circulation)421. Which of the following can be driven by gravity? Currents, thermohaline circulationFor questions 22-23, use the graph below to answer the questions. This graph shows the curves for nutrients,phytoplankton, sunlight, and zooplankton in temperate ocean waters in the northern hemisphere (e.g., NorthPacific).22. Which curve in the graph above represents nutrients? A23. Which of the following does curve D in the graph above represent? (REASON this out…when issunlight abundant and who eats what/who?). Zooplankton24. The compensation depth is where algae consume oxygen for respiration at the same rate at which they produce oxygen by photosynthesis25. Nearshore productivity is almost always more productive than open ocean productivity. TRUEFor questions 26-29, use the graphs below to answer the questions. Note that the nitrate concentration is in µM(µmoles/liter) and the depth is in meters.26. Flux is going down in which graph(s)? Graph C27. For graph B, the flux is -4.0 X 10-10 nmoles/ cm2•s from point 4 to 3 and the flux is -1.0 X 10-9 nmoles/cm2•s from point 3 to 2. Which of the following is true of graph B?28. For graph A, the flux is -5.2 X 10-9 nmoles/ cm2•s from point 5 to 4 and the flux is -1.7 X 10-9 nmoles/cm2•s from point 4 to 3. Which of the following is true of graph A? For 27-28, you should be able to determine which way the flux is going, which are produced or consumed, and which has the deepest photic zone. The flux goes in the direction from highest concentration to lower concentration, so Graphs A and B the flux is going up and for Graph C it is going down. The photic zone is deeper in A than in B or C because there is slower regeneration in graph A since the concentration is going up much slower. 29. The photic zone is deeper in which graph? A (Slower regeneration=deeper photic zone)30. Which of the following statements is true of detecting changes in the extent of oxygen minimumzones? (We don’t need to know these two because they were in unimportant guest lectures)31. Which of the following statements is not true of oxygen minimum zones (OMZs)? The dead zone forms during spring when freshwater runoff from the Mississippi creates a barrier layer in the Gulf, cutting off the saltier water below from contact with oxygen in the air. Nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizer and sewage in the freshwater later ignite huge algae blooms. When the algae die, they sink into the saltier water and decompose, using up the O2 in the deeper water. This then becomes a dead zone.32. Which is the “canary of the coastal zone?” Sea grass33. Which of the following is true of C13 values? More negative values are depleted while less negative values are enriched. For question 34, use the values below to answer the question. -26 to -28â = mangrove -22 to -20â = marine phytoplankton -14 to -12â = marsh grass -7 to -10â = marine seagrass 34. 2'%(")%(#..0).%#'%3%43/#,)%3,#43*%"35)%3%113C value of -21â, what is that animal most likely eating? Quiz 4 – March 5, 2013 (from Homeworks 7-8 and Feb. 19, 21, 26, and 28 lectures) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Which animal is considered to be a suspension feeder? C. Sponges What do squid use as a decoy defense mechanism? C. Coagulate Ink Which phylum is found exclusively in marine habitats? C. Echinodermata What makes up the greatest biomass of any species on Earth (excepting bacteria)? B. Krill What percentage of all living and fossil animals are invertebrates? D. 90% How do some predatory sharks find their prey? D. All of these choices What is the basis for life in the hydrothermal vent community? B. Chemosynthetic organisms What is water called when it is a mixture of both freshwater and seawater? B. Brackish water What is a community? B. A group of interacting organisms of different species10. What do most deep water consumers depend on for survival? A. The productivity of the water column above 11. Photosynthetic autotrophs changed the composition of the atmosphere during the oxygen revolution.TRUE 12. Schooling behavior makes normally small fish appear like a

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