FSU WOH 1023 - Factors behind first civilizations

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1-7-13Factors behind first civilizations • 4000 BCE: increasing periods of mild weather and discovery of grain crops (barley, millet, rice, wheat) encourage nomadic humans to cease wanderings, agriculture is developed• Irrigation (artificial application of water to soil) allows larger harvests and population growth, domestication of animals provides additional sources of food and labor• Access to raw materials (wood, stone, water) lead to development of settlements• Initially based along clan lines, proximity and mutual defense lead to merging of settlements into cities – land, rock, earth, water • Cities become patriarchalStonehenge (3100 BCE)• Best known European megalith• Initially began as circular ditch and wall enclosure• Don’t know who built it or why• First stones emplaced 2600 BCE, replaced by present-day bluestones 2280 BCE• Purpose of site remains unclear, possibly linked to other worship sites located around Salisbury plain• Stones came from Wales about 200 miles awaySumerian Civilization (5400-1940 BCE)• Collection of city-states arising along Tigris and Euphrates River, Mesopotamia (land between the rivers)• Eridu: World’s first city founded 5400 BCE• 3000 BCE: Developed Cuneiform (wedge-shaped) one of earliest writing forms• Ziggurat: Massive step pyramid used for religious worship• 2270-2046 BCE: Akkadians invade and conquer Sumeria but retained and adopted Sumerian language and customs• 2047-1940 BCE: Sumer civilization briefly revives after collapse of Akkad but enters into permanent decline as region’s resources are depleted• 1700 BCE: remnants of Sumer/Akkad absorbed into Babylonian Empire located further north Egypt: Old Kingdom • 3100 BCE: upper and Lower Egypt unified by King Narmer, who founds First Dynasty, but continues to exercise power through local rulers• Economy and society based on seasonal floods of Nile River/ Polytheistic religions with priests conducting services from stone platforms (mastabas)• Third Dynasty: Djoser becomes first Pharaoh as Egyptians develop large scale permanent structures, eventually gains absolute power and is regarded as mortal form of god Horus• 2667-2648 BCE: Egyptian vizier Imhotep designs first pyramid (Step pyramid) by stacking six mastabsas. Pyramid, serves as center of religious practice in present and as royal tomb in future• Old kingdom lasts until 2150 BCE, after years of droughts and civil unrest Great Pyramids at Giza (2560-2630 BCE)• Complex of pyramids and supporting tombs/temples built by succession of Pharaohs Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure (fifth dynasty) • Also includes Great Sphinx, built during Khafre’s reign• Labor provided by volunteers in exchange for food, beer and tax credits• Remains in use for royal tombs throughout Old Kingdom period and portion of New kingdom1-9-13Egypt in the Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 BCE)• Begins with reunification of Egypt by 11th dynasty Pharaoh Mentuhotep II (11th dynasty)• Marked by military ambitions and construction of fortifications along the Nile• Religion remains polytheistic but dominated by the cult of Osiris• Reaches its height during twelfth dynasty before declining under thirteenth. 1650 BCE: torn by civil unrest, upper Egypt is conquered by seafaring Hyksos The New Kingdom (1550-1050 BCE)• Begins with expulsion of Hyksos from Egypt and establishment of Eighteenth dynasty• Considered most dynamic period of ancient Egyptian history. Hatshepsut (1508-1458 BCE) step mother and regent to Thutmose but ruled as Pharaoh 1479-1458 BCE, often masqueraded as male but successfully established overseas trade relations• Hatshepsut built elaborate mortuary temple at Djeser-Djeseru only to be expunged by successor Thutmose III• Thutmose III (1479-1425 BCE) conducted seventeen military campaigns, expanded Egypt’s frontiers to Nubia and modern-day Syria• Includes first recorded battle in history at Megiddo (1457 BCE) o Recorded by the Old Testament o Becomes known by Greek name Armageddon o According to New Testament that’s where the world is going to end Akhenaten (1351-1334 BCE)• Born as Amenhotep but converted to worship of the sun (Aten) and changed his name to “living spirit of Aten”• Insisted he be depicted in his natural form, not idealized and seen at home playing with the kids • Decreed Egypt to monotheistic worship of Aten (Ra) orders all other temples closed and priests dismissed• Married to Great Wife Nefertiti and elevated her to equal status• Moves away from idealistic portrayals in favor of “realistic” depictions with family• After Akhenaten’s death, successors would end sun worship and return to polytheistic religion. Death of Tutankhamun (King Tut) brings 18th Dynasty to endRamesses II (1303-1213 BCE)• Pharaoh of 19th dynasty regarded as most powerful Pharaoh of Egyptian history. Known for military campaigns into Middle East, Levant and Nubia• Fought massive battle against Hittites at Kadesh 1274 BCE• Built capitol city Pi-Ramesses (Nile Delta) and temple complex at Abu Simbel. Eventually worshiped as “living god”• Reign of 66 years, estimated 24 wives and sired 80 sons and 60 daughters, died age 93 – his favorite wife Nefertari was the only wife who was depicted as the same size as Ramesses • Egypt enters decline after Ramesses’ death. New kingdom finally collapses around 1069 BCE and replaced by series of foreign rulers Indus River Civilization (3300-1300 BCE)• Bronze Age culture developing along Indus River Valley• Includes cities of Harrappa, Lothal and Mohenjo-Daro• Features includes first cities with centralized planning and sanitation system• Civilization reaches its height around 2600 BCE with extensive trade network covering entire river network• 1800 BCE civilization enters period of decline as population disperses east and west, possible reasons of decline include climate changed eastward shift of monsoon patterns and Indo-Aryan migration into region• One of earliest civilizations, provides important cultural and social history for later societies within region Indo-Aryan migration (1700-1300 BCE)• Collection of peoples moving into region from central Asia (linguistically related to Indo-European peoples)• Either overwhelmed or assimilated Indus civilization and indigenous peoples• Largely pastoral, nomadic peoples, warlike, introduced chariots to region, illiterate but possessed with strong oral culture•

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FSU WOH 1023 - Factors behind first civilizations

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