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Exam 2 Review1. Three phases of the European War- a. German successes through Blitzkrieg; Germany short of Moscow 12/1941.b. Stalemate (12/1941-1/1943); Stalingrab is turning point.c. Germany on the defensive, losing ground2. Ethnic Germans- People of German descent who spoke German that lived outside of Germany before 1939. 3. German invasion of Czechoslovakia March 1939- Hitler had invited the president over and humiliated him by keeping him waiting. Hitler exhausted the president to the point that he signed over the Czechs to Hitler. This invasion was different than the other invasions. Past the Sudetenland there was not a German majority. There were no cheering crowds to welcome Hitler and the Nazis. 4. Italian conquest of Ethiopia (October 1935)- Mussolini invades Ethiopia 5. Madagascar Plan- an idea brought up by the Nazis that suggested moving all Jews to the French colony of Madagascar; considered as late as 19406. “Phony War”- Because of bad weather Hitler decides to wait to invade France. Invades France through Luxembourg May 10, 1940. Discredited Chamberlain steps down, Churchill is Prime Minister. 7. End of western appeasement- March 1939. If Germany invades Poland England and France will declare war 8. Operation Barbarosa- Launched June 22, 1941, branched out to Moscow but Soviets stopped the Nazis from invading Moscow9. German-Soviet Non-aggression Pact- Hitler wanted to negotiate with the Soviet Union to isolate it from the West. Stalin signed the agreement on August 23, 1939, because he doubted the West would stand up to Hitler and that the West may try to direct Hitler’s aggression against the Soviet Union. This treaty virtually removed the possibility of direct military assistance to Poland from other countries and allowed Russia to occupy part of Poland.10. Munich Conference- occurred September 29-30, 1938. Wanting to prevent war, Britain, France, and Italy conceded the Sudetenland to Germany with occupation to take place in October. 11. Ernst vom Rath- a German diplomat assassinated in June 1938 by a young Jew which lead to the Kristallnacht. 12. Claus von Stauffenberg-took the leadership of the anti-Nazi conspiracy, enlisted support, and planned the assassination of Hitler for the summer of 1944. He failed twice before putting a bomb inside Hitler’s military headquarters in Prussia on July 20. Hitler was not killed but Stauffenberg and his men thought he did so they took over the War Ministry in Berlin and ordered the arrest of all major Nazi officials and SS officers. But by the end of the day the plot failed and Stauffenberg and the other conspirators were later executed. 13. The Second Consolidation of Power (2/1938)a. Hitler assumes leadership over the army; Keitel replaces Blombergb. Ribbentrop replaces von Neurath at the Foreign Officec. Funk replaces Schacht at the Economics Ministry 14. Impact of Blitzkrieg on the German home front- Hitler saw civilian morale as an essential component of the war effort. Economic hardships and shortages gradually increased, but the Germans never had to endure starvation and other deprivations they faced in WWI. Planning, early rationing, and the exploitation of labor, food, and other resources from occupied Europe shielded the Germans. The burdens that did exist fell onto the lower classes. Women were not allowed to work until 1943 out of desperation but most still did not work. 15. Four Year Plan- 1936; Hitler announces that the German armed forces must be ready for combat within four years and that the German economy must be fit for war within four years16. The “Polish Corridor”- a section of Russia Hitler wanted in order to connect the Reich with East Prussia17. Operation Sea Lion- codename for the invasion of Britain. Hitler began to create serious and extensive preparations for this due to Britain’s continued resistance. 18. Vichy France- France when it was under the rule of Petain during WWII.19. Neville Chamberlain-British prime minister during the time of the Munich conference. He believed the appeasement was a triumph for negotiations and diplomacy. Chamberlain was enthusiastically received at home for preserving the peace and getting Hitler to acknowledge that this was his “last demand.”20. Battle of Stalingrab- the German armies were in Russia, because Hitler believed that a capture of Moscow could end the war. However, in 1942, winter in Russia came early leaving the German troops stuck in the rough weather. Hitler refused to let his troops retreat leading them to be stuck in Stalingrab for months. After 200,000 casualties, General Paulus finally surrendered on February 2, 1943.21. Theresienstadt-a transit ghetto north of Prague, Czechoslovakia. From there prisoners would be transported to death camps. 22. Pact of Steel- formed on May 28, 1939 between Italy and Germany that officially formed their alliance. 23. French surrender June 1940- France was facing imminent collapse and Britain had left the battlefield at Dunkirk. Italy invaded France after declaring war on them and Britain on June 10th, 1940. France signed the armistice with Germany on June 22nd. 24. Wartime conscription of women- Hitler conscripts women into the work force between age 17 and 40. Goebbels said that “There are however numerous jobs in war production that do not demand great physical strength, and which a woman can do even if she comes from better circles. No one is too good to work, and we all have the choice to give up what we have, or to lose everything. However many women ignored this and refused to work 25. Danzig- a city located in Poland that Hitler demanded be returned to him as well as a corridor through Polish territory to connect East Prussia with the Reich26. Hans Frank- in charge of the general government in Poland. He was known as King Frank and as a megalomaniac. He objected that his territory was to be used as a dumping ground 27. Hjalmar Schacht- responsible for the loans Germany received to help pay off loans. Considered the most significant monetary expert of his generation. Hitler was never involved when Schacht made his plans. But when Schacht wanted to scale down German industry out of fear of inflation, Hitler became furious and pushed him aside.28. Marshal Henri Petain- ruled over Vichy France during WWII. 29. Confessional Church- Protestant church organization established April 1934 by theologians opposed to Nazis racial doctrine and attempts to nazify the Protestant Church 30. RAF-

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FSU EUH 4465 - Exam 2 Review

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