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FSU EUH 4465 - Nazi Germany Mid-Term

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Nazi Germany Mid-Term1. DAP-Hitler was sent by the military intelligence unit to observe them; it was a local Munich party with a handful of members and no program, but they were nationalist. Hitler joins immediately, calls himself member #550 to make the party seem bigger. Changes the name to NSDAP in April 1920, because a name change shows that the party has made an effort to become a mass party. Hitler rises to power within the party because of his rhetoric2. Nazi program-25 points, on February 24, 1920 Hitler presents them at the party’s first public meetings. It outlines the goals of the party.3. Article 231- part of the Versailles Treaty, blamed Germany for WWI---went too far4. Friedrich Ebert- as a result of the SPD leader proclaiming a republic, he was the first president, a saddle maker, showing that the elites were not in power5. Article 48- emergency right within the Weimar Constitution for the president to suspend parts of the constitution in the case of an emergency. However these emergencies were not outlined. Used several times before Hitler rises to power.6. Beer Hall Putsch- Hitler’s attempt to overthrow the Weimar. It was quickly put down and Hitler was tried for treason7. Hitler’s trial for treason- he gained national recognition. He claimed that he did his putsch because of the Versailles Treaty and acted out of patriotic duty. He gained sympathy and his jail sentence was shortened as a result.8. German People’s Party (DVP)- founded by Stresemann in 1918. Made up of the idle class. Wanted democracy. When the Great Depression hit they lost support because they favored big businesses.9. Stresemann- leader of the DVP, served as chancellor in 1923. Monarchist and antirepublican but became one of the strongest advocates of the new republic. Without him the Weimar Republic would not have lasted as long. Brought Germany into the League of Nations. He invited a new era of international cooperation. In 1926 he won the Nobel Peace Prize.10. Olympic Games in Berlin- 1936, the Nazis toned down their anti-Semitic campaign because Hitler wanted to present a positive image to the world---reinforced the hope of the German Jews11. Concordat with the Catholic Church- negotiations between Hitler and the papacy. Papacy recognizes Hitler and renounces the rights of the Catholics in Germany to engage in political activity, but Hitler must promise the Church has protection of its faith. Thiswas a triumph for Hitler, because Hitler is now recognized by one of the world’s most important religious and moral leader and Catholics would not give him anymore trouble12. All Quiet on the Western Front- written by Erich Maria Remarque. She left Germany in 1933 out of protest against the new Reich or because the new Reich would not allow her to write. Nazis saw this positively as a beginning of the racial cleanse.13. Hyperinflation- began in 1923. Middle class savings and investments were worthless. People on pension and unemployment became poor overnight. Caused unemployment, food riots, and distress. This provided opportunity for the left and right extremists.14. Enabling Act- passed on March 24, 1933, gave Hitler dictatorial powers for four years. Had to receive 2/3 vote from the Reichstag (notice legality). Promised that if this act were to be passed he would end unemployment and seek international peace.15. Heinrich Bruning- Appointed as chancellor on March 28, 1930. Used Article 48 when Reichstag rejected his budget in July. Considered the presidential government to be able political parties. Had the president dissolve the Reichstag and hold new elections in September. The elections did not go his way and the government was blamed for the economic collapse and accused of violating the Constitution. “Hunger Chancellor”16. Nuremberg Party Rallies- most magnificent of them all. Nuremberg was selected, because of its Gothic Architecture and medieval atmosphere. Nazis built huge parade grounds, arenas, and meeting halls. Average number of attendees 500,000. Lasted over a week. The Fuhrer remained the focal point; this rally was more of a tribute to Hitler.17. Gleichschaltung- coordination, assist Hitler’s expansion and consolidation of power as well as the realization of the Nazi revolution by forcing state and social institutions to submit to the party and ideological goals. 18. Gregor Strasser- when Hitler was in prison, Gregor and his brother both controlled the northern German Nazis. They wanted a revolution which would threaten Hitler’s power and his new strategy of legality. Schleicher offers vice chancellorship to Gregor in an attempt to split up the Nazis. Gregor resigned from the party. He was killed during the Night of the Long Knives.19. Strength Through Joy- created by the German Labor Front. Sponsored concerts, sports events, hikes, adult classes, tours, etc. Free or at a minimal cost. Allowed German workers to live like the middle class.20. German Labor Front- created on May 10, 1933 to dissolve all trade unions and replace them. Meant to integrate all workers and represent the interests of the labor and economic life but it was mostly used to control labor and indoctrinate workers with Nazi spirit.21. Catholic Center Party- major partner of the Weimar Republic. Attracted Catholics from across the board. Catholics had benefitted from democracy. Because this party was so broad it was very easy to form coalitions and compromises with other parties. Hitler managed to convince them to vote for the Enabling Act in exchange for rights of the Church22. Kurt von Schleicher- leading figure in the decision to experiment with a presidential government. His influence is attributed mainly to his role of confidant to Hindenburg. He wanted to stabilize the Weimar. Tried to contain the Nazis by forming an anti-Nazi group to give the Nazis some power and positions, when in reality, Schleicher held all the power. Persuaded Hindenburg to replace Brüning with Papen. Later asked Hindenburg to make him chancellor to try a new approach and failed. He was killed during the Night of the Long Knives. 23. Arthur de Gobineau- Frenchman who wrote “Essay on the Inequality of Races” in which he theorized that only the superior white race could create and maintain civilization. Civilization depended on the whites therefore no mixing of races24. Aryan Clause- “Master Race”, most advanced because of evolution. Racial purity was required to keep Aryans alive. Forces in the modern


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