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TCC ESC 1000 - Earth Science Exam 3 Outline

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Earth Science Exam 3 OutlineI. Intro to OceanographyII. Chemical OceanographyIII. Geological OceanographyIV. Physical Oceanography CurrentsV. Physical Oceanography Ocean WavesVI. Coastal ProcessesEarth Science Exam 3 OutlineI. Intro to OceanographyA. Four Disciplines1. Chemical Oceanography the study of the chemical composition of seawater and how it is affected by interactions with the atmosphere, the biosphere, and the sediments and rocks which form the seafloor.2. Geological Oceanography covers topics in plate tectonics, petrology of oceanic rocks, sedimentation processes in the ocean, and paleoceanography and paleoclimatology.3. Physical Oceanography he understanding of the physical processes that govern the circulation of the ocean and the coupled atmosphere-ocean system.4. Biological Oceanography the study of the relationship between living organisms in the ocean and their environment.II. Chemical OceanographyA. Water molecule• 1. Covalent Bonds between one hydrogen (H) and two oxygen (O) atomsa) polarity Dipolar – bar magnet – Polarity• 2. Hydrogen Bonds are weaker than covalent bonds but still strong enough to result in:a) surface tension High water surface tension – cohesionb) solubility High solubility of chemical compounds in waterc) thermal properties Unusual thermal properties of waterd) unusual density UnusualdensityofwaterC. States of Matter (Water)1. solid 2. liquid3. gas4. changes of statea) heat and temperatureb) calorieD. Waters Thermal Properties1. freezing point2. boiling point3. heat capacity4. latent heatE. Global Thermostatic Effects1. Moderates Earths Climate2. Day/Night temperature rangesF. Salinity - the total amount of solid material dissolved in seawater. Expressed in parts perthousand(0/00). Averagesalinityofworldsoceansis350/00.1. measuring salinity2. sources of salinity3. salinity and temperature relationship with deptha) haloclinesb) thermoclinesIII. Geological OceanographyA. Three Areas of Ocean Floor1. Continental Marginsa. Passive Margins margins NOT associated with plate boundaries -little volcanism and few earthquakes.(1) continental shelf gentlyslopingsurfaceextendingfromtheshorelinetoward the ocean. A flooded extension of the continents(2) continental slope steep zone that marks the boundary between continental crust and oceanic crust.(3) continental rise wherethesteepcontinentalslopemergesintoamoregradual decline. Thick accumulation of sediment that moved downslope from the continental shelf to the deep ocean floor.b. Active Margins occur where oceanic lithosphere is subducted beneath the edge of a continent. Results in a narrow margin with an accretionary wedge.(1) accretionary wedge2. Ocean Basin Floor between the continental margin and the mid ocean ridgea. abyssal plain (cross section) incredibly flat.3. Mid-Ocean Ridge Rift Valleys deep ocean valleys along mid ocean ridge system. Volcanoes, and hydrothermal vents.a. Rift valleysb. Seamounts Submarine volcanoes may build up above sea level to form seamounts. As the plate upon which these volcanoes rest moves away from a spreading ridge, the volcanoes sink beneath sea level.c. Guyots have flat tops because they have grown tall enough to be "shaved" by waves at the ocean's surface. Seamounts have a similar origin but retain their more pointed volcano shape because they never reached the surface.d. Hydrothermal Vents are the result of seawater percolating down through fissures in the ocean crust in the vicinity of spreading centers or subduction zones (places on Earth where two tectonic plates move away or towards one another).IV. Physical Oceanography CurrentsA. Ocean Currents masses of ocean water that flow from one place to another. Currents can big or small, shallow or deep, short lived or permanent1. Surface Currents develop from friction between the ocean and the wind that blows across its surface.a. Gyres circular moving current systems or whirls of waterb. Coriolus Force is an apparent deflection of the path of an object that moves within a rotating coordinate system. The object does not actually deviate from its path, but it appears to do so because of the motion of the coordinate system.2. Deep Water Currentsa. thermohaline circulation Over time, a complex circulation pattern has been established whereby warm surface waters move poleward, while cold, deep currents are established in the ocean depths.3. Tidal currentsa. causes of tides the sun and the moonb. Types of tides High Tide: The highest level of the sea surfaceEbb Tide: The time between high and low tide (The tide is going out)Low Tide: The lowest level of sea surface heightSpring Tide: Tides that have the largest daily variance between high tide and low tide due to the alignment of the moon aand sun as seen during full and new moons. Higher high tides and lower low tides.Neap Tide: Tides that have the least daily variance between high and low tides due to the moon and sun being perpindicular to each other as during 1/4 moon and 3/4 moon. Lower high tides and higher low tides.(1) Spring Tides (2) Neap tides V. Physical Oceanography Ocean WavesA. Anatomy of a wave When the wind blows across the water, it changes the water's surface, first into ripples and then into waves.1. Wavelength horizontal distance between successive crests or troughs2. Wave Height vertical distance between any crest and succeeding trough3. Wave Crest The highest part of the wave above the still-water line.4. Wave Trough The lowest part of the wave below the still-water line.5. Wave Base is the maximum depth at which a water wave's passage causes significant water motion. For water depths larger than the wave base, bottom sediments are no longer stirred by the wave motion above.B. Wave Motion1. circular orbital motion As a wave travels, the water passes the energy along by moving in a circular orbit Floating objects also follow circular orbitsOrbital size decreases with depth to zero at wave baseDepth of wave base = 1⁄2 wavelength, measured from still water level2. breaking wavesC. TsunamisVI. Coastal ProcessesA. Wave Refraction and Longshore Current1. wave refraction2. longshore current3. longshore transport of sedimentsB. Coastal ErosionC. Ways to Combat erosion1. Coastal Armoringa. jettiesb. groinsc. breakwatersd. seawalls2. Beach Restoration a. dredge and fill processb. impacts from beach restoration(1) benthic infauna(2) reef and hardbottom(3) sea turtlesAll material we have


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