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Earth Science Exam 1 OutlineI. IntroductionA. Science:state of knowingIII. Continental Drift Theory – Alfred WegenerV. EarthquakesEarth Science Exam 1 OutlineI. IntroductionA. Science:state of knowing 1. scientific process and critical thinking The process depends both on making careful observations of phenomena and coming up with explanations for making sense out of those observations. 2. observation descriptive statements about natural phenomena that are "directly" accessible to the senses and about which several observers can agree upon with ease. Vs. inference statements about natural phenomena that are “NOT directly" accessible to the senses. 3. theories explain how nature worksB. Earth is a closed system (collection of independent parts)1. hydrosphere2. atmosphere thin envelope of gases that surround the earth.3. biosphere contains all of the planet's living organisms form the ocean floor upward to several kilometers into the4. lithosphere – upper portion of mantle and crustII. Structure of the Earth – Earth is like an egg A. inner core hot solid material, 10,000C hotter than the sun, B. outer core molten liquid layer of earth, conducts electricity + rotation of earth= magnetic fieldC. mantle largest layer of earth1. lower mantle 2200 degree Celsius2. upper mantle 870 degree Celsius D. crust oceanic crust/continental crustIII. Continental Drift Theory – Alfred WegenerA. Hypothesis - Pangea B. Evidence to support his hypothesis1. Continental Jigsaw Puzzle2. Fossil Evidence3. Geographic structures4. Ancient Climates IV. Plate Tectonics – Earths crust is made up of “plates.” A. Plate Boundaries1. Divergent boundaries and features – constructive margins new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other - form mid oceanic ridges through seafloor spreading2. Convergent boundaries – destructive margins crust is destroyed as one plate dives under another - subduction zones - deep ocean trenches 3. Transform boundaries – conservative margins crust is neither produced nor destroyed as the plates slide horizontally past each other Types of Convergent Boundariesa. oceanic – oceanic b. cceanic – continental c. continental - continentalB. Hot SpotsHawaiian Island chainC. Evidence of plate tectonics ACTIVITY1. Sea Floor Age2. Volcanism3. Earthquakes4. Seafloor density5. Seafloor topographyD. Models of Plate-Mantle Convection 1. Layering – Layer Cake2. Whole Mantle ConvectionE. Forces that drive plate movement 1. slab pull sinking of a cold, dense slab lithosphere 2. ridge push gravity driven force that results from elevated position of the edge 3. slab suction of oceanic plate start to peel away because it's oldest, coldest, and dense. V. EarthquakesA. Definition and Terms 1. Earthquake vibration of the earth produced by a rapid release of energy. 2. Focus Energy radiates from its source in all directions3. Epicenter the location on the surface directly above the focus4. Foreshock small earthquakes that precede major earthquakes - used in predicting major earthquakes5. Aftershock smaller earthquakes after major quake - weaker but can cuase much damage on weakened structuresB. Causes of Earthquakes1. Elastic Rebound and steps that lead to earthquakes C. Rock Deformation Changes in the original shape and/or size of a rock body. Caused by stress. Occurs along plate boundaries.1. Types of rock stressa. tensional stretches rockb. compressional squeezes rockc. shear slippage and translationd. confining stress equal from all directions2. Types of deformationa. elastic reversibleb. ductile change in size/shape without fracturing. In depth where temperature and preassure are high. Results in “folds” in rocksc. brittle Rocks near the surface at low temps and pressure behave like a brittle solid and fracture once their strength is exceeded D. Faults ractures in the crust where displacement has occurred generally through brittle deformation. 1. Dip-Slip Faults aults where the movement is primarily parallel to the inclination or dip in the fault surface a. Normal Where the hanging wall block moves down in relation to the footwall block fault. b. Reverse where the hanging wall block moves up in relation to the footwall block fault. Angle of “dip” is 45o or greaterc. Thrust where the hanging wall block moves up in relation to the footwall block fault. Folding occurs causing shortening and thickening. Angle of “dip” is less than 45o angle 2. Strike Slip Fault Faults where the displacement is horizontal and parallel to the “strike” of the fault surface. Two Types: Right Lateral and Left LateralE. Seismic Waves1. Body Wavesa. primary waves (p waves) travel the fastest and thereby felt firstb. secondary waves (s waves) slower/more destructive2. Surface Wavesa. Love waves This one is sort of a Rayleigh Wave on its side.b. Raleigh waves combination of both p/s wave.(ex.Ocean wave)F. Measuring Earthquakes1. Seismographs is a device that scientists use to measure earthquakes. And they work accurately record the motion of the ground during a quake.2. Locating the epicentera. differences in arrivals of p waves move really fast, but don’t cause that much damage and s waves move slower, but more effective3. Intensity a. Modified Mercalli Scale Invented by Giuseppe Mercalli in 1902. Based on the effects of the quake. This scale uses the observations of the people who experienced the earthquake to estimate its intensity.4. Magnitude a. Richter Scale InventedbyCharlesF.Richterin1934.The Richter magnitude is calculated from the amplitude of the largest seismic wave recorded for the earthquake, no matter what type of wave was the strongest. Magnitude - based on amount of energy released. b. Moment Magnitude enables seismologists to compare the energy released by different earthquakes on the basis of the area of the geological fault that ruptured in the quakeG. Destruction Caused by Earthquakes1. Vibration of Earth’s Surface Causes Structural Damage Structures a. Intensity of vibration b. Duration of vibration c. Type of material the structure is on for example(1) Liquifaction Soils containing water turn into a fluid when shake d. The design of the structures 2. Tsunamis a. differences between Tsunami are caused by undersea

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TCC ESC 1000 - Earth Science Exam 1 Outline

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