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Preterit Time ExpressionsImperfect Time ExpressionsPositive/indefinitenegativeCHAPTER 1Vocabulary 1.1la ascendencia heritage/nationalityel atractivo attractionel clima climateel condado countryantiguo oldindígena indigenouscompartir to sharedisfrutar to enjoyel acantilado cliffel altiplano high plateaula altura height/altitudela bahía bayel cerro hillla cordillera mountain chainel desierto desertla isla tropical island resortel mar Mediterráneo/mar Caribe Mediterranean SeaCaribbean Seael sitio place/location/siteel volcán volcanoel amanecer sunriseel chubasco heavy rain showerel huracán hurricanela neblina fogla puesta del sol sunsetla tormenta stormdespejado(a) clear (skies)encantador(a) charminghúmedo humidmontañoso(a) mountainousplano(a) flatseco(a) drysoleado(a) sunnyllover (ue) to rainnevar (ie) to snow(estar) en el horde (to be) on the edge(estar) en las afueras (to be) on the outskirts(estar) situado (to be) situatedel continente continentla provincia provinceel glaciar glacierla región regionla sierra mountain rangeVocabulary 1.2el (anglo) hispano hablante english/spanish speakerlos antepasados ancestorsel aporte contributionel (la) boricua Puerto Ricanel (la) chicano(a) Chicanola capa social social classla etnia/el grupo étnico ethnic groupel icono iconel logro achievementla minoría minorityel orgullo pridela población population/villagelos valores/valorar values/to valueabundar to be abundantasimilarse to assimilatedestacar(se) to distinguish (oneself)establecer(se) to establish (oneself)influir to influenceinmigrar to immigratepertenecer a to belong to, to pertainsuperar(se) to overcome/to improveel certamen contest/eventel escenario stageel espectáculo showlos fuegos artificiales fireworksla pachanga party (party music)el premio/premiar award/to awardel puesto boothla (música) salsa/cumbia/merengue salsa/cumbia/merengueel ritmo bailabe danceable rhythmentretenido entertainingexquisito(a) exquisitefestivo(a) festiveacoger to welcomedegustar to taste/samplefestejar to celebratediverso(a) diversedominante dominantgeneración generationheterogéneo(a) heterogeneoushomogéneo(a) homogeneousinfluencía influenceorigen originPerspectiva 1At first glance the spanish world appears to be homogenous but in reality this is not so. The first immigrants arrived from spain in 1492 and rapidly dominated the native population of each area. To differentiate from the pattern of immigration in the United States, where the immigrants arrived mainly in compound groups of families, to Latin America the soldiers that arrived mixed with the native population forming a new race. This is the new race that is celebrated in the festival of the Day of the Race (Día de la Raza). It is a new individual that is not European nor is it indigenous. But did the Latino Americans belong to only one race? Is it a homogeneous group? Can you guess only by their looks if a person is Latin American?Like that in the United States many groups of various countries are established in Latin American. They arrived in groups from Japan, Korea, Germany, France, Portugal, Africa, Italy and China among others. In these countries that are on the coast of the Carribean Sea like Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras, Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, there is much African influence that is due to the slave trade. In Peru, 20% of the population is of Japanese ancestry due to various waves of immigration that began in 1899. In Argentina more than 90% are of Spanish and Italian influence. To Chile, Argentina and Bolivia arrived hundreds of Koreans since 1961. Latin America, like the US is a melting pot of races.Uses of Present Indicative - Conditions of situations that aren’t specifically bound by time, including habitual actions- Actions that Occur in the present or actions in progress.- actions that will occur in the near future- actions in past-tense narrations that are brought to life through the use of the present tense.- ir a + infinitive or pensar a + infinitive : planning to ____ or going to ____Uses and OmmisionsIn Spanish, in all verb tenses, the endings of the conjugated verb indicate the subject of the verb. For this reason, the subject pronouns - yo, tú, él/ella/usted, nosotros(as), vosotros(as), ellos/ellas/ustedes - are only used when introducing new subjects, contrasting subjects, or when the subject is not obvious either from the verb ending or the discourse. WHEN NO POSSIBILITY OF AMBIGUITY SPANISH SPEAKERS OMIT SUBJECT PRONOUNS.Ser, Estar, Haber, y TenerSer and EstarUses of the verb Ser- profession or occupation- origin- what something is made of- possession- nationality, religion or political affiliation- intrinsic qualities- time, dates, seasons- where an event is to take place- certain impersonal expressionsUses of the verb Estar- location- with the present progressive tense- with adjectives describing conditions that are subject to change or deviate from what is considered the normexampleaburrido(a): with ser - boring with estar: boredenfermo(a): with ser - sickly (person) with estar: illUses of Haber and Tener- hay, an irregular form of the verb is used to express the idea of “there”- tener can also be translated as “to be” but is limited to- años: to be x years old - cuidado: careful- calor: hot - éxito: successful- celos: jealous - frío: cold- hambre: hungry - la culpa: guilty- miedo: scared - prisa: to be in a hurry- (no)...razón: right/wrong - sed: thirsty- sueño: tired, sleepy - suerte- verguenza: ashamed, embarrassedPerspective 2The US citizens of Spanish ancestry have contributed enormously to the development of the US. They have left their print on public service, industry, entertainment, sports, business, sciences, literature and politics. Two featured Spanish people are Bill Richardson and Esmeralda Santiago.Bill Richardson, of Mexican descent, was born in Pasadena, California in 1947, but spent his childhood in Mexico City. At 13 years, his parents sent him to the USwhere he recieved a baccalaureate in politcal sciences and French from Tufts University where he also got a master’s degree in international relations. His political career is very distinguishable. He served congress for 14 years,

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