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Final Exam Review SheetDefinitions and Distinctions1) Contingent vs. Necessary: Something is “contingent” if it is not necessary, i.e. if it could have failed to exist. Most things seem to exist contingently. All of the human artifacts around us might not have existed; for each one of them, whoever made it might have decided not to do so. Their existence, therefore, is contingent. You and I, too, might not have existed; our respective parents might never have met, or might have decided not to have childrenSomething is “necessary” if it could not possibly have failed to exist. The laws of mathematics are often thought to be necessary. It is plausible to say that mathematical truths such as two and two making four hold irrespective of the way that the world is. Even if the world were radically different, it seems, two and two would still make four. God, too, is often thought to be a necessary being2) Teleological Arguments: A teleological or design argument is an a posteriori argument for the existence of God based on apparent design and purpose in the universe. The argument is based on an interpretation of teleology wherein purpose and design appear to exist in nature beyond the scope of any such human activities. The teleological argument suggests that, given this premise, the existence of a designer can be assumed, typically presented as God.3) Ockham’s Razor: the simplest solution is the best one 4) Argument Defeater: attempts to show that an argument fails to establish its conclusion5) Argument Against: provides an argument in favor of the negation of a given conclusion 6) Natural Evil: volcanoes, earthquakes, disease, etc.7) Moral Evil: evils brought about by human wrongdoing and/or morally bad attitudes8) Deontology: The rightness or wrongness of actions is not determined solely by their consequences o Kant: One’s intentions, or the reasons behind one’s actions, are what determine whether the action is right or wrong o Morality is a matter of rights, obligations, duty 9) Consequentialism: Consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness of that conduct.(i.e. Utilitarianism where Ends justify the Means)10) Intrinsic value vs. Extrinsic/Instrumental Value: The intrinsic value of something is said to be the value that that thing has “in itself,” or “for its own sake,” or “as such,” or “in its own right.”Extrinsic value is value that is not intrinsic11) Imperative: an objective principle that tells us what it is most rational to do 12) Categorical Imperative: tells us what we should do, no matter our goals.o Objective because they apply to all rational beings. o Hypothetical imperatives rely upon the end goal for their formulation but categorical imperatives do not o Therefore, there is only one categorical imperative (with different formulations) One categorical imperative but many duties follow 13) Hypothetical Imperative: tells us what we should do to attain to a certain goal o Subjective because only those who have that particular goal ought to act according to the imperative 14) Maxim: any simple and memorable rule or guide for living15) Ends: that which a mean is intended to case 16) Means: that which is conducive to bringing about an end(When you set a goal, your goal is the end and the actions you do to achieve it are the means)17) Summum Bonum: bonum (the highest good)a. That which is good without bringing about any further good.b. An end in itself.c. Good in virtue of itself in some way.An example: what is the immediate reason why you are in class at this moment? The ultimate?18) Applied Ethics: Discussion of a particular ethical issue (i.e. whether it is morally permissible, morally impermissible or morally obligatory)• Applied ethics (applying philosophy to “real life” problems means that it has practical implications• Apply a specific ethical theory to an applied issue• Argue for a specific position on an applied issue from theory-neutral premises.19) Marginal Utility: utility as "the feelings of pleasure and pain" and further as a "quantity of feeling"20) Veil of ignorance: No one knows their place: classless, sexless, raceless, don’t know personal traits (e.g. intelligence, physical strength, likes/dislikes, conceptions of the good, psychological propensities)“Since all are similarly situated and no one is able to design principles to favor his own particular condition, the principles of justice are the result of a fair agreement or bargain” (580)21) Reflective Equilibrium: finding that balance between the original principles and our current judgments where they finally coincide• Can be revised in light of further considerations22) Maximin decision strategy: Decision-making procedure by which you choose the option whose worst case scenario is better than the worst case scenario of all the other options• This is opposed to decision making procedures that seek to maximize potential gains (best case scenario better than the best case scenarios of the other options) or that choose the option with the best probability of a good outcome23) Principles of Justice: are those that free, equal and rational persons would agree upon.• The principles of justice lay the ground rules for all of the other agreements and decisions in the society.• Principles of justice concerno Basic rights and dutieso Division of social benefits (social and economic)• 1) each person is to have an equal right to the most basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others • 2) social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are botho A) reasonably expected to be everyone’s advantage ando B) attached to positions and offices open to all• The first principle is more fundamental and cannot be violated in order to get a better distribution of social and economic distribution • 1st principle includes (basically) all the rights included in our constitution: freedom to vote, freedom to run for political office, freedom of speech, thought, etc. • 2nd principle includes the distribution of wealth, design of political and social organizations • Injustice = inequalities that are not toTeleological ArgumentsPaley, Natural TheologyHume, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (BB)Paley: God's design of the whole creation could be seen in the general happiness, or well-being, that was evident in the physical and social order of things.Hume: In the Dialogues, Hume's

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FSU PHI 2010 - Final Exam Review Sheet

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