MCC NUR 214 - Common Communicable Diseases Worksheet

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Common Communicable Diseases WorksheetAgent Mode oftransmissionPrecautions Assessment Nursing Considerations Prevention StrategiesEscherichia Coli (E Coli)Direct Contaminated water, foods, or through contact w/ animals or people(Unpasteurized milk)Standard Profuse diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps, ↑ WBC, fever (not high less than 101) Proper hand washingAssess VSTreat symptomsAvoid dehydration-replace fluid and electrolytes as orderedPractice proper hygiene, HANDWASHING –before/after preparing foods/bathroom, keep all objects that enter infants mouth clean, if soap isn’t available use hand sanitizer w/ atleast 60% alcohol. Food safety: clean, separate, cook, chill, use food thermometer, no cross contam, thoroughly wash counters/hands/ surfaces that touch raw meat, avoid raw milk/unpasteurized dairy products/juices (fresh apple cider), don’t swallow water when swimming in lakes, ponds, streams SalmonellaDirect Through contaminated foods: improperly cooked meats/eggs, contact w/ animals or their environmentStandardNausea, vomiting, diarrhea (watery & bloody), abd cramps, fever, chillsPeople @ higher risk: immunocompromised, underlying GI illness, young children, pregnant womenProper hand washingAssess VSTreat symptomsAvoid dehydration-replace fluid and electrolytes as orderedWash hands/surfaces oftenSeparate raw meats from otherfoodsCook to the right temperature (Meat 160 degrees)Refrigerate food promptlyClostridium DifficileDirect/contact – shed through feces, or material that becomes contaminated w/ feces may serve as reservoir for C diff sporesContact, isolationAbd pain, crampingWatery diarrhea with foul odorfeverProper hand washingAssess VSTreat symptomsAvoid dehydration-replace fluid and electrolytes as orderedPrivate room if possibleAbx prescription, tests that are accurate, rapidly identifying, and isolating pt w/ C. diff, wearing PPE when tx’ing pt w/ C. diff, proper hand hygiene (soapDedicated equipment and water NOT hand sanitizer) cleaner surfaces inrooms with C. diff pts w/ EPA- approved, spore killing disinfectantAgent Mode oftransmissionPrecautions Assessment Nursing Considerations Prevention StrategiesGroup A StrepBacterial, spread through droplet-Can touch something w/ droplets on it and then touch their mouth/nose-Drink from same glassor eat from the same plate -Touch sores on the skin cause by group A strep (impetigo)Contact(Although transmitted via contact w/ droplets, CDC does not recommend droplet precaution)Abrupt onsetPharyngitisHeadacheFeverAbd painPossible inflamed tonsils and exudateLymphadenopathySore throat (abrupt)Tiny red spots at the roof of the mouthProper hand washingCough etiquette Assess VSThroat cultureTreat symptomsOral antibiotics used. Still infectious until on antibiotics for24° (PCN/Amoxicillin)Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough/sneeze, wash hands with soap/water, alcohol-basedhand sanitizer, abx as prescribed, stay home/restLegionnaire’s Disease (CDC website)External/Internal factors l/t growth in the water system – grows best in large/complex systems that aren’t adequately maintained --breathe in mist or accidentally swallow water into the lungs containing Legionella.Droplet(water used for showering – potable, cooling towers, decorative fountains, hottubs)SOBCoughFeverHeadacheMuscle aches Assess VSCXR – pneumoniaUrine sampleSputum – phlegm Treat symptomsabx--increased risk: adults 50 years or older, current/former smokers (COPD/emphysema), people w/ weakened immune system (cancer, DM, kidney failure) or chronic dz*Building owners/managers maintain building water systems and implement controls for legionella*Remove dead legs/dead ends in pipe-work, flush out infrequently used outlets (including showerheads and taps) at least weekly and clean and de-scale shower heads and hoses at least quarterly.Lyme DiseaseVector (Deer Standard Bullseye, swollen Assess VS Use insect repellent thattick/nymphs)Contact/Direct *Remove: grasp tick firmly as close to skin as possible-steady motion pull ticks body away, cleansearea w/ rubbing alcohol or soap and waterlymph nodes, red ring rash, Acute flu-like symptoms – fever rash, severe fatigue, facial paralysis, or joint pain w/in 30 days of being bitIf symptoms untreated-pt may experience systemic symptoms (neuro and musculoskeletal)Treat symptomsAntibiotics (typically for 2-3 weeks) Plenty of rest Education*Transmission of bacteria unlikely to occur before 36° of tick attachment*. After 36-48 higher incidence of lyme dz bacteria being transmittedcontains 20-30% DEETWear clothing that has been treated with permethrinTake a shower as soon as you can after working outdoorsLook for ticks on your body **UNDER ARMPITS, BEHINDTHE KNEES, IN THE HAIR, & GROINPut your clothes in the dryer on high heat for 60 minutes to kill any remaining ticksInfluenza3 Types-A, B, C-A and B cause significant illness in humansDropletLess common  ContactDroplet Abrupt onsetChills, fever, anorexia, myalgia and malaise, sore throat, cough, headache, runny or stuffy nose, fatigue some people may have vomiting/diarrhea Assess VSTreat symptomsAntiviral if rxPatient educationMonitor for a secondary (2°) infectionStay home for at least 24 hr after your fever is goneRestIncrease fluidsHand hygieneCover your mouth when sneezing/coughingThrow tissues in the trash after you use themAvoid touching your face**flu shotAgent Mode oftransmissionPrecautions Assessment Nursing Considerations Prevention StrategiesORSA/MRSA-Oxacillin resistant staphylococcus aureus/methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus Direct contact w/ an infected wound or fromcontaminated hands usually those of healthcare workers Contact Per CDC – may cause skin infections, pneumonia andIsepsis.Assess VSTreat symptomsPatient and family educationPrivate room if possibleDedicated equipmentHand hygieneAppropriate use of abxCA-MRSACommunity acquired MRSADirect contactSharing personal items, touching area of infection with contaminated hands/itemContact Per CDC-usually cause skin infectionsAssess VSTreat symptomsPatient and family educationProper hand and body hygiene Proper wound cleaningavoid sharing personal itemsget care early if infection VRE-Vancomycin-resistant enterococciContact w/ contaminated persons/surfaces Contact May cause infections ofurinary tract, the bloodstream, or of woundsAssess VSTreat symptomsPatient and family educationPrivate room if possibleDedicated equipmentProper hand washing

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MCC NUR 214 - Common Communicable Diseases Worksheet

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