CSU HES 145 - Outline Exercise for Health and Fitness

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Exercise for Health and Fitness This topic gives you the basic information on the benefits of physical activity and exercise that you need to put together a physical fitness program that will work for you. I. The Benefits of Exercise A. Improved Cardiorespiratory Functioning 1. Regular endurance exercise improves the functioning of the heart and the ability of the cardiorespiratory system to carry oxygen to body tissues. 2. Other benefits of exercise: a. Healthy arteries b. Improved sexual functioning and general vitality. B. More Efficient Metabolism and Improved Cell Health 1. Metabolism, the process that converts food to energy and builds tissue, becomes more efficient through regular exercise. 2. Exercise may also protect cells from damage from free radicals, which are destructive chemicals produced during normal metabolism, and from inflammation caused by high blood pressure or cholesterol, nicotine, and overeating. 3. Training activates antioxidants that prevent free-radical damage and keep the body’s cells healthy. C. Improved Body Composition 1. Healthy body composition means that the body has a high proportion of fat-free mass and a relatively small proportion of fat. Too much fat, particularly abdominal fat, is linked to a variety of health problems. 2. Exercise improves body composition by increasing calorie expenditure, slightly raising the metabolic rate. a. Greater muscle mass also increases metabolic rate. D. Disease Prevention and Management 1. Regular exercise reduces the risk of many chronic, disabling diseases. 2. Cardiovascular Disease a. A sedentary lifestyle is one of six major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart attack and stroke. b. Exercise affects the risk factors for CVD and interferes with the disease process itself. 3. Cancer a. Research has shown a relationship between increased physical activity and a reduced risk of cancer. i. Analysis of data from studies of 1.44 million subjects concludes that higher levels of leisure-time physical activity are associated with lower risks for 13 of 26 types of cancer. ii. There is evidence that exercise reduces the risk of colon cancer and perhaps prostate cancer, and cancer of the breast and reproductive organs in women.iii. Physical activity during high school and college years may be particularly important for preventing breast cancer later in life. 4. Osteoporosis a. Exercise is important for strong bones. b. Protection against osteoporosis comes from weight-bearing exercise, which builds bone during your childhood, teens, and twenties. c. Strength training and impact exercises, such as jumping rope, can increase bone density throughout life. 5. Type 2 Diabetes a. Exercise prevents the development of type 2 diabetes; and for those who already have diabetes, exercise is an important part of treatment. E. Improved Psychological and Emotional Wellness 1. Exercise has social, psychological, and emotional benefits, including the following: a. Reduced anxiety and depression b. Improved sleep c. Reduced stress d. Enhanced self-esteem, self-confidence, and self-efficacy e. Enhanced creativity and intellectual functioning f. Increased opportunities for social interaction F. Improved Immune Function 1. Moderate exercise appears to boost immune function and protect from disease, while excessive training may depress the immune system. G. Prevention of Injuries and Low-Back Pain 1. Increased muscle strength protects against injury by helping people maintain good posture and appropriate body mechanics. It also helps prevent low-back pain. H. Improved Wellness for Life 1. Exercising regularly may be the single most important thing a person can do to improve his or her quality of life in the future. II. What Is Physical Fitness? A. Physical fitness is a set of physical attributes that allow the body to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort. B. Health-related fitness includes the following components: 1. Cardiorespiratory endurance 2. Muscular strength 3. Muscular endurance 4. Flexibility 5. Body composition C. Cardiorespiratory Endurance 1. Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high intensity. 2. Low levels of cardiorespiratory endurance are linked with heart disease, diabetes, coloncancer, stroke, depression, anxiety, and premature death from all causes. 3. Regular cardiorespiratory endurance training conditions the heart and related physical functions, prompting many improvements: a. The heart pumps more blood per heartbeat. b. Resting heart rate slows and blood pressure decreases. c. Blood volume increases. d. Blood supply to the tissues improves. e. The body can cool itself better. f. Metabolic health improves, which helps the body process fuel and regulate cell function. 4. A healthy heart can better withstand the strains of daily life, the stress of emergencies, and the wear and tear of time. 5. You can develop cardiorespiratory endurance through activities that involve continuous, rhythmic movements of large muscle groups—such as by walking. D. Muscular Strength and Endurance 1. Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort. a. Muscles are important to help keep the skeleton in alignment, providing the support for good posture. b. Greater muscle mass makes possible a higher rate of metabolism and faster energy use, which help maintain a healthy body weight. c. Maintaining strength and muscle mass is vital for healthy aging. d. Strength training also has been shown to benefit cardiovascular health. i. It helps to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. 2. Muscular endurance is the ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given level of muscle tension. a. Both everyday life and most leisure and fitness activities are enhanced by good muscle endurance. b. One develops muscular endurance by stressing muscles with a greater load (weight) than they usually carry. E. Flexibility 1. Flexibility is the ability to move joints through their full range of motion. 2. Inactivity causes joints to become stiffer, leading to unnatural body postures. 3. Stretching exercises can help ensure a normal range of motion for all major joints. F. Body Composition 1. Body composition refers to the proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body. 2. Healthy body

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