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Personal Health This topic focuses on defining health and describing how wellness can be achieved through a behavior change plan. I. Wellness as a Health Goal A. Health is the overall condition of body or mind and the presence or absence of illness or injury. Wellness expands this idea to include living a rich, meaningful, energetic life, encompassing all the dimensions of well-being. 1. Wellness depends on conscious decisions that affect risk factors of disease or injury. B. Dimensions of Wellness 1. The interrelated dimensions of wellness interact continuously. Making changes in one dimension often affects others. 2. Physical Wellness a. Your body’s overall condition and absence of disease b. Fitness level c. Ability to care for yourself 3. Emotional Wellness a. Dynamic, involving the ups and downs of living b. Key factors: optimism, trust, family relationships, self-esteem, and self-confidence 4. Intellectual Wellness a. Maintaining an active mind 5. Interpersonal Wellness a. Satisfying and supportive relationships b. Learning good communication skills and developing the capacity for intimacy c. Participating in and contributing to your community and to society 6. Cultural Wellness a. Interacting with and accepting those of different ethnicities, religions, genders, sexual orientations, ages, and customs 7. Spiritual Wellness a. Possessing a set of guiding beliefs, principles, or values that give meaning and purpose to your life 8. Environmental Wellness a. Defined by the livability of your surroundings 9. Financial Wellness a. Living within your means in a way that gives you peace of mind 10. Occupational Wellness a. A level of happiness and fulfillment derived from work C. The Long and the Short of Life Expectancy 1. Genes can determine up to 25% of the variability in life span. a. Certain genetic diseases and variable behaviors are correlated more highly to a shorter life span than others. Behaviors such as avoiding or giving up smoking or attaining higher education levels can increase longevity. Obesity and drug use alsocorrelate strongly to life span. b. In the early 20th century, morbidity and mortality rates from common infectious diseases were much higher than today. c. Vaccines, antibiotics, and public health campaigns have all contributed to a greatly increased life expectancy. d. People have some control over whether or not they develop many chronic diseases. i. Lifestyle choices can play a huge part. II. Promoting National Health A. Health promotion strives to enable people to increase control over their health and its determinants. 1. The primary health promotion strategies at the government and community levels are policies and agencies that discourage unhealthy and high-risk behaviors and encourage positive health behaviors. a. National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are federal agencies charged with promoting the public’s health. b. There are also health promotion agencies and programs at the state, community, workplace, and college levels. B. The Affordable Care Act 1. The ACA was signed into law in 2010 and has been upheld by the Supreme Court. Some of its provisions have been altered by the recent administration. 2. Finding a Plan a. Health exchanges facilitate the purchase of insurance. b. Those below income requirements are eligible for federal help with premiums. c. Many employers and universities also help students get health insurance. 3. Benefits to College Students a. Up to age 26, students can stay on their parents’ health insurance plans. b. Some young people prefer “catastrophic” plans that have low premiums but require you to pay medical costs up to a certain amount; but these can be risky. c. In some states, students with low incomes may qualify for Medicaid. C. The Healthy People Initiative 1. The national Healthy People initiative aims to prevent disease and improve Americans’ quality of life. The Healthy People reports, published each decade since 1980, set national goals based on 10-year agendas. The upcoming report Healthy People 2030 is in development and proposes the following broad national objectives: a. Eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death. b. Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve health literacy. c. Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all. d. Promote healthy development and healthy behaviors across every stage of life. 2. The Healthy People Initiative has remained in effect, but certain provisions have been altered.D. Health Issues for Diverse Populations 1. Most health issues concern us all equally. a. Health disparities are those differences linked to social, economic, and/or environmental disadvantage; they affect groups who have systematically experienced greater obstacles. b. Other differences between individuals and groups are biological and cultural and can help you identify areas of concern for you and your family. 2. Sex and Gender a. Sex refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men, women, and intersex people. b. Gender encompasses how people identify themselves and also the roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for them. c. Several gender-related characteristics affect wellness, such as higher rates of smoking and drinking among men, and lower earnings found among women. 3. Race and Ethnicity a. American ethnic and racial minorities have higher rates of death and disability from many causes. i. Such disparities result from a complex mix of genetic variations, environmental factors, and health behaviors; but separating social and environmental factors from genetic ones can be extremely difficult. ii. Some genetic diseases are concentrated in certain gene pools, the result of each group’s relative distinct history. iii. Many cultural differences occur along ethnic lines, including: (1) Traditional diets (2) Family and interpersonal relationships (3) Attitudes toward tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs (4) Health beliefs and practices b. Health concerns have been identified for each of five broad ethnic or racial minority groups defined by the federal government. c. African Americans i. Same leading causes of death as the general population; lower rates of suicide and osteoporosis ii. Concerns: higher infant mortality,

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CSU HES 145 - Outline Personal Health

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