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NAME: VILLANUEVA, MARY JOY M.CODE: E428 THE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT LEARNERS AND LEARNING PRINCIPLESCHAPTER 7: KHOLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENTLAWRENCE KOHLBERGKohlberg extended Piaget’s theory: Proposed that moral development is a continual process that occurs throughout the life span. Used Piaget’s story-telling technique to tell people stories involving moral dilemmas. He based his theory upon research and interviews with groups of young children. A series of moral dilemmas were presented to these participants and they were also interviewed to determine the reasoning behind their judgments of each scenario. One of the best know stories of Kohlberg’s (1958) concerns a man called Heinz who lived somewhere in Europe.LEVEL 1: PRE-CONVENTIONAL MORALITYAt the pre-conventional level (most nine-year-old and younger, some over nine) we don’t have a personal code of morality. Instead, our moral codeis shaped by the standards of adult and the consequences and following or breaking the rules.Authority is outside the individual and reasoning is based on the physical consequences of actions. STAGE 1: OBEDIENCE AND PUNISHMENT ORIENTATIONThe child/individual is good in order to avoid being punished. If a person is punished, they must have done wrong. STAGE 2: INDIVIDUALISM AND EXCHANGEAt this stage, children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints.LEVEL 2: CONVENTIONAL MORALITYAt the conventional level (most adolescent and adults), we begin to internalized the moral standards of valued adult role models.Authority is internalized but not questioned, and reasoning is based on the norms of the group to which the person belongs. STAGE 3: GOOD INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPSThe child/individual is good in order to be seen as being good person by others. Therefore, answers relate to the approval of others. STAGE 4: MAINTAINING THE SOCIAL ORDERThe child/individual becomes aware of the wider rules of society, so judgments concern obeying the rules in order to uphold the law and to avoid guilt.LEVEL 3: POST-CONVENTIONAL MORALITYIndividual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice. According to Kohlberg this level of moral reasoning is as far as most people get. STAGE 5: SOCIAL CONTRACT AND INDIVIDUAL RIGHTSThe child/individual becomes aware that while rules/laws might exist for the good of the greatest number, there are times when they will work against the interest of particular individuals. STAGE 6: UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLESPeople at this stage have developed their own set of moral guidelines which may or may not fit the law. The principles may apply to everyone.CHAPTER 8: VYGOTSKY’S SOCIO-CULTURAL THEORYLEV SEMONOVICH VYGOTSKY“The Mozart of Psychology”Lev Semonovich Vygotsky was born in Western Russia on November 5, 1986. His father, Semi L’vovich, founded the “Society of Education in Gomel”, and held a wide range of active interest including foreign language, history, literature, theater and arts. His mother was educated as teacher. His work began when he was studying learning and development to improve his own teaching. He wrote language, thought, psychology of art, learning and development and educating students with special needs.SOCIO-CULTURAL THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT:- Crucial influence that social interactions and language, embedded within a cultural context, have on cognitive development. Vygotsky emphasized that effective learning happens through participation in social activities. Parents, teachers and other adults in the learner’s environment all contribute to the process. They explain, model, assist, give directions and provide feedback. Peers, on the hand, cooperate and collaborate and enrich the learning experience.LANGUAGE- Language can be viewed as a verbal expression of culture.- Every culture has the words it needs for its lifestyle.- It opens the door for learners to acquire the knowledge that the others already have.- It is use to know and understand the world and solve problems.- Its serve as a social function but it also has an important individual function. It helps the learner to regulate and reflect on his thinking.ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT ZONE OF ACTUAL DEVELOPMENT- Which the child may perform certain level of competency she/he may not immediately be at it. ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT- The difference between what the child accomplish alone and what she/he can accomplish with guidance of another.SCAFFOLDING- Refers to the support or assistance that lets the child accomplish a task he/she cannot accomplish independently.- It is not about doing the task for the child while he/she watches.- It is not about doing shortcuts for the child.- It should involve the judicious assistant given by the adult or peer so that the child can move from the zone of actual to the zone of proximal development.CHAPTER 9: BRONFENBRENNER’S ECHOLOGICAL THEORYBRONFENBRENNER’S ECHOLOGICAL SYSTEM’S THEORYURIE BRONFENBRENNER- An American Psychologist, formulated the systems theory to explain how the inherent qualities of children and their environments interact to influence hoe they grow and develop.- The Bronfenbrenner’s theory emphasizes the importance of studying children in multiple environments, also known as ecological systems, in the attempt to understand their development.- According to Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System Theory, children typically find themselves enmeshed in various ecosystems, from the most intimate home ecological system to the larger school system, and then to the most expansive system which includes society and culture. - Each of these ecological systems inevitably interact with and influence each other In all aspects of the children’s life.THE 5 BRONFENBRENNER’S ECOLOGICAL MODELSMICROSYSTEM- The Bronfenbrenner’s theory suggest that the microsystem is the smallest and most immediate environment in which children live. Such as, the microsystem comprises the daily home, school or daycare, peer group and community environment of the children.- Interacts within the microsystem typically involve the personal relationship with family members, classmates, teachers, and caregivers. How these groups or individuals interact with the children will affect how they grow.- One of the most significant findings that Urie Bronfenbrenner’s unearthed in his study of

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