UW-Madison NS 350 - Nutri Sci 350 Exam 1 Study Guide

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Nutri Sci 350 Exam 1 Study GuideExam 1 Study Questions:● What is food insecurity and does it relate to malnutrition?● What are the 4 types of malnutrition? What causes each type?● What is “environmental enteropathy” and what is its’ proposed mechanism?● What is the relationship between toilets and stunting?● Describe the changes in the use of carbohydrate, fat and protein during starvation.● What is a problem in both industrialized and developing countries and why?● How does the body adapt metabolically to malnutrition?● What nutrient is required for energy production and where does it come from when not inthe diet?● How is nutritional status assessed? What is the result of good nutrition?● What might happen to the capacity to work with undernutrition?● How did the subjects in the Keyes study adapt to semistarvation?● What were the physical and psychological symptoms exhibited during the semistarvationin the Keyes study?● How long did full recovery take in these study subjects?● How does the body adapt physiologically to PEM?● What is the result of the changes in the immune system during protein energymalnutrition?● What happens to the functional capacity of the heart during protein calorie malnutrition?The lungs?● What is the effect of electrolyte changes on muscle tissue?● Why is there diarrhea with severe PEM?● What is the major effect of early life PEM?● What are the 2 types of PEM? How do they differ? What has been linked to themicrobiome?● What is the proposed way to change the microbiome?● What are the major micronutrient deficiencies in the world?○ What are the symptoms of these deficiencies?○ Who is most likely to be deficient in each of these nutrients?○ What are the dietary sources of these nutrients and what are the issues associatedwith availability, intake and absorption?○ What impact do these deficiencies have on life?● What nutrient deficiencies are associated with decreased cognitive ability? How?● What nutrient has been successfully supplemented in the diet via salt? Sugar?● What nutrient deficiency has a decrease in immune function before the presentation ofmore obvious clinical signs?● Why is obtaining iron and vitamin A different from animal versus plant sources?● What is the key indicator of malnutrition?● What indicator is used to measure progress in breaking the intergenerational cycle ofmalnutrition?● What is the effect of maternal nutrition on the fetus?● What is the best way to feed an infant? For how long? Be able to give reasons. Whatactions have been recommended to support this?● When should complementary foods be introduced and why?● What has been hypothesized regarding in utero malnutrition and health in later life?● Why is exploratory behavior so important in children? What fuels it?● Why is it important to frequently weigh and measure a child?● What is stunting? Wasting? Underweight?● What are the major determinants of stunting? What is this linked to in adulthood?● What improves learning in children?● What happens in the adolescent period that challenges nutrition?● What is a major issue with early pregnancy in undernourished girls?● What problems may stunted women have during pregnancy and delivery?● What decreases with malnutrition in adults?● Why is good nutrition important for the elderly?● Why should prevention focus on the life cycle and not just with fetal and early childhoodmalnutrition?● What are the major effects of refeeding?○ What happens metabolically? Physiologically?○ What is a common complication? Why?○ What causes diarrhea in refeeding?○ Why must refeeding be done slowly?○ What sign indicates that a child is entering the rehabilitation phase? What isencouraged at this point?● What is ORS and what is it used for?● What is RUTF, under what circumstances is it used, and what are the advantages of it?● What besides nutrients must be part of the therapy for malnourished children?● Why are continuing studies on children who have been treated for malnutritionnecessary/of interest?● What is the nutrition transition? What dietary changes occur?● What are the good and bad parts of this?● What are the common chronic diseases? What common condition have many been linkedto?● What are modifiable risk factors for chronic disease?● Who is affected by chronic disease?● What dietary recommendations have been made to decrease risk?● What must people have to make good choices about diet?● What is the link between poverty and obesity?● What is the double burden of malnutrition?● How does the cost of a healthy diet compare to a nutrient adequate diet or energysufficient diet? How many people in 2017 could not afford a healthy diet?Four Types of Malnutrition1. Overnutritiona. Too many calories and not enough exercise, contributing to obesity, diabetes,hypertension, and cardiovascular disease2. Secondary Malnutritiona. Not directly caused by the dietb. Results from a condition that inhibits a person’s ingestion, digestion orabsorption, and metabolismc. Another causative condition is diversion of nutrients to parasitic agentsd. Causes:i. Loss of appetiteii. Increase in BMR (basal metabolic rate)iii. Prevention of nutrient absorption1. Diarrheaiv. Parasitic agents3. Micronutrient Malnutritiona. Caused by dietary deficiencies of micronutrientsi. Vitamin Aii. Iodineiii. Iron4. Protein Calorie/Energy Malnutritiona. Occurs when a person has an extremely deficient intake of protein and caloriesb. More food is need and people rarely have protein efficiency without caloricdeficiencyEnvironmental enteropathy: small intestinal disorder due to constant ingestion of feces viacontaminated food and waterHow do we determine nutritional status?- Anthropometric Assessment- Low height for age measure: stunting- Chronic- Low weight for height measure: wasting (i.e. BMI)- Acute- Low weight for age measure: underweight- Both acute and chronic- Biomedical assessment- Clinical- DietaryKeys Case Study- Background/motivation:- Real world concern: Deal with people in war-torn Europe who had undergoneextreme starvation after the end of the war.- Study motivation: How people would be affected physiologically andpsychologically by a limited diet and what would be the most effective way toprovide postwar rehabilitation?- Human experiment: To subject volunteers (36 conscientious objectors; get datafrom 32 out of 36) to semi-starvation and

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UW-Madison NS 350 - Nutri Sci 350 Exam 1 Study Guide

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