UW-Madison NS 350 - Nutri Sci Exam 2 Study Guide

Unformatted text preview:

Nutri Sci Exam 2 Study GuideLectures 2-5Lecture 2: FaminesWhat is a famine?- A famine occurs when a large number of people die from starvation- Famines are extreme cases of food insecurity- Each famine is typically specific to a particular period and particular region- The severity of a famine is often measured by the number of people who starve to deathBut this can be difficult to assess for two reasons- People can die from causes unrelated to malnutrition- Malnutrition increases the odds of death from diseasesFive Case Studies- Irish potato famine, 1845-1852- Ukraine famine, 1932-1933- Bengal famine, 1943- China famine, 1959-1961- Ethiopia famine, 1984-1985Irish Potato Famine, 1845-1852- In the 1840’s, 2/3 of the Irish population were farmers, many of them poor farmersdepending almost exclusively on potatoes for food- The famine was caused by a potato disease (“potato blight”) creating massive cropfailure- 1 million people died from starvation and disease (out of 8 million people living inIreland in 1840)- 1 million people emigrated from Ireland- Why did Irish farmers specialize so much in growing potatoes?- Because potatoes produce more calories per acre than any other crop (includingwheat)- Because potatoes are also a good source of vitamins and minerals.- Lesson #1: Overspecialization in agriculture can expose us to risk associated withadverse shocks from disease or weather- There was no shortage of food in Europe at the time- Lesson #2: Preventing famines is not easy:- Private and public interventions did not reduce the death rate from the Irishfamine- In the 1840’s, agricultural markets were protected from trade (through protectionistpolicies that restrict trade)- Lesson #3: By importing food from other regions, trade can help reduce food insecurity- Note: In 1849, Britain repealed protectionist policies called the “Corn Laws”. This wasthe start of the first period of world market globalization (1850-1914), led by GreatBritain- Human migration was a major response to the Irish famine (in particular, migration tothe US).- Lesson #4: Migrating away from the region where famine occurs can be an effectivecoping mechanism- But this requires finding an immigration region exhibiting favorable conditions.- Finding a “favorable” immigration region is becoming more difficult...Ukraine Famine, 1932-1933- In 1929, Stalin introduced compulsory collectivization of agriculture in the SovietUnion- As Ukrainian farmers resisted, their food stocks were confiscated, causing widespreadstarvation- 6-8 million Ukrainians died (out of a population of 34 million)- Lesson #5: Government policies can create faminesBengal Famine, 1943- Bengal was a region in North-East India (now divided between Bangladesh and India)- 1.5-3 million people died of starvation in Bengal in 1943 (out of 60 million people)- In Bengal, the availability of food grains (rice) was higher in 1943 (the famine year) thanin 1941- Famine victims were almost all from rural areas- Among rural occupations:- Farmers were the least affected group- Agricultural workers were the most affected group- The role of “entitlements”- Food purchasing power = individual income divided by the price of food- This is the largest quantity of food that an individual can purchase givenhis/her income- When the food purchasing power falls below some survival threshold, peoplestarve (even if food is available)- Food purchasing power- rises with income- declines with the price of food- The famine in rural Bengal was caused by- Some decline in the rural wage rate (reducing the income of agriculturalworkers)- A sharp rise in the price of rice in rural areas- This implied a sharp reduction in the food purchasing power of agriculturalworkers- Agricultural workers starved to death not because there was no food, but becausethey did not have the purchasing power to acquire it- Lesson #6: Malnutrition and starvation can occur even if food is available- Sen argues that agricultural workers were affected most (compared to other groups)because they saw the largest decline in their food purchasing power- Lesson #7: Malnutrition can vary across individuals as a function of income and prices:- Malnutrition increases with poverty (low income)- Malnutrition tends to increase under high food pricesChina Famine, 1958-1962- In 1958, Mao Tse Tung implemented in China a policy (“Great Leap Forward”) thatfavored industrialization at the expense of agriculture- Combined with poor weather conditions, this led to massive crop failures- It resulted in the worst famine in history: 30 million people died in China in 1958-1962Ethiopia Famine, 1984-1985- Ethiopia (in North-East Africa) has an economy based on agriculture. It has seen manydroughts and famines over the last centuries- The 1984-85 famine was the worst one in Ethiopia’s history: 1 million people died- This famine was due to a combination of drought, civil war and government policy- The vulnerability to famine and malnutrition varies among socio-economic groups- Pastoralists (who move with their livestock) versus subsistence farmers (who aresedentary)- Wealth matters (livestock is a common way to accumulate wealth in rural Africa)- Social relations- Access to relief shelters- Effectiveness of famine relief programs...Famine Relief Programs- Famine relief programs have been put in place by governments, the United Nations (e.g.,the World Food Program, UNICEF), international organizations (such as the Red Cross)and Non-Government Organizations (NGO) (such as “Action Against Hunger”, CARE).- The World Food Program (WFP) provides food assistance to 85-90 million people in 83countries each year- Current emergencies:- Yemen, South Sudan, Syria, Central African Republic, Nigeria, DR Congo,Burundi, Venezuela, ...- Migration options to deal with famine are deteriorating- Finding a “favorable” immigration region is becoming difficult- Refugee camps have become more common...Lecture 3: Malnutrition Around the WorldAbout 1 out of 8 people in the world are hungryWhat groups of people are undernourished?- Malnutrition can affect any group- But the incidence of malnutrition is often higher for:- Children, who are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of undernutrition bothin the short run (they are more likely to die) and in the long run (as malnutritionaffects physical, physiological and mental development)- The poor, who cannot afford an adequate diet- People living in rural areas- They often

View Full Document

UW-Madison NS 350 - Nutri Sci Exam 2 Study Guide

Download Nutri Sci Exam 2 Study Guide
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Nutri Sci Exam 2 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Nutri Sci Exam 2 Study Guide 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?