TOWSON EBTM 735 - Principles of Process Improvement

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Principles of Process ImprovementFlexibility and Cycle Time ReductionBreakthrough ImprovementReengineeringSystematic Improvement MethodologiesSystematic Improvement MethodologiesThe Deming CyclePlan (1 of 2)Plan (2 of 2)DoStudyActAnalyzing Process Maps (1 of 2)Analyzing Process Maps (2 of 2)Kaizen EventsPoka-Yoke (Mistake-Proofing)What is Mistake Proofing?Everyday Examples Which dial turns on the burner?Everyday Examples How would you operate these doors?Everyday ExamplesA New Attitude Toward Preventing ErrorsThree Levels of Mistake-ProofingPoka-Yoke in ServicesCreative ThinkingPrinciples of Process ImprovementPrimary focus areas–Productivity–Cost–Quality1Flexibility and Cycle Time ReductionFlexibility – the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to changing requirements Cycle time - the time it takes to accomplish one cycle of a process –Reductions in cycle time speed up work processes so that customer response is improved but can be accomplished only by streamlining and simplifying processes to eliminate non-value-added steps such as rework. 2Breakthrough Improvement Breakthrough improvement refers to discontinuous change, as opposed to the philosophy of gradual, continuous improvement.–Often motivated by stretch goals or breakthrough objectives3ReengineeringReengineering – “the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.”4Systematic Improvement Methodologies1. Redefining and Analyzing the Problem: Collect and organize information, analyze the data and underlying assumptions, and reexamine the problem for new perspectives, with the goal of achieving a workable problem definition.2. Generating Ideas: “Brainstorm” to develop potential solutions.5Systematic Improvement Methodologies3. Evaluating and Selecting Ideas: Determine whether the ideas have merit and will achieve the problem solver’s goal.4. Implementing Ideas: Sell the solution and gain acceptance by those who must use them.67The Deming CyclePlan (1 of 2)1. Define the process: its start, end, and what it does.2. Describe the process: list the key tasks performed and sequence of steps, people involved, equipment used, environmental conditions, work methods, and materials used.3. Describe the players: external and internal customers and suppliers, and process operators.4. Define customer expectations: what the customer wants, when, and where, for both external and internal customers.5. Determine what historical data are available on process performance, or what data need to be collected to better understand the process.8Plan (2 of 2)6. Describe the perceived problems associated with the process; for instance, failure to meet customer expectations, excessive variation, long cycle times, and so on.7. Identify the primary causes of the problems and their impacts on process performance.8. Develop potential changes or solutions to the process, and evaluate how these changes or solutions will address the primary causes.9. Select the most promising solution(s).9Do1. Conduct a pilot study or experiment to test the impact of the potential solution(s).2. Identify measures to understand how any changes or solutions are successful in addressing the perceived problems.10Study1. Examine the results of the pilot study or experiment.2. Determine whether process performance has improved.3. Identify further experimentation that may be necessary.11Act1. Select the best change or solution.2. Develop an implementation plan: what needs to be done, who should be involved, and when the plan should be accomplished.3. Standardize the solution, for example, by writing new standard operating procedures.4. Establish a process to monitor and control process performance.12Analyzing Process Maps (1 of 2)Are the steps in the process arranged in logical sequence?Do all steps add value? Can some steps be eliminated and should others be added in order to improve quality or operational performance? Can some be combined? Should some be reordered?Are capacities of each step in balance; that is, do bottlenecks exist for which customers will incur excessive waiting time?What skills, equipment, and tools are required at each step of the process? Should some steps be automated?13Analyzing Process Maps (2 of 2)Where are the critical points of customer contact?At which points in the system might errors occur that would result in customer dissatisfaction, and how might these errors be corrected?At which point or points should quality be measured?Where interaction with the customer occurs, what procedures and guidelines should employees follow to present a positive image?14Kaizen EventsA kaizen event (kaizen blitz) is an intense and rapid improvement process in which a team or a department throws all its resources into an improvement project over a short time period, as opposed to traditional kaizen applications, which are performed on a part-time basis.1516Poka-Yoke (Mistake-Proofing) Poka-yoke – an approach for mistake-proofing processes using automatic devices or methods to avoid simple human or machine error, such as forgetfulness, misunderstanding, errors in identification, lack of experience, absentmindedness, delays, or malfunctionsWhat is Mistake Proofing?The use of process or design features to prevent errors or their negative impact.Also known as Poka yoke, Japanese slang for “avoiding inadvertent errors” which was formalized by Shigeo Shingo.Inexpensive.Very effective.Based on simplicity and ingenuity.Everyday ExamplesWhich dial turns on the burner?18Stove AStove BEveryday ExamplesHow would you operate these doors?BACPush or pull? left side or right? How did you know?Everyday ExamplesNew lawn mowers are required to have a safety bar on the handle that must be pulled back in order to start the engine. If you let goof the safety bar, the mower blade stops in 3 seconds or less. Fueling area of car has three error-proofing devices: 1. insert keeps leaded-fuel nozzle from being inserted 2. tether does not allow loss of gas cap 3. gas cap has ratchet to signal proper tightness and prevent overtightening. 3.5 inch diskettes cannot be inserted unless diskette is oriented correctly. This is as far as a disk can be inserted upside-down. The beveled corner of the diskette along with the fact that the diskette is not

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TOWSON EBTM 735 - Principles of Process Improvement

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