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ENV101 Final Review-Environmental Art, DAIJ (describe, analyze, interpret, judgment)-Lopez Reading: “Apologica”- removed road kill from road-theme: value of species/respect to creatures who have nothing to us-Leopold Reading: “Thinking Like a Mountain”-Writer, naturalist, conservationist -Wolf-hunting/ “the doe”-always killed wolves (less wolves=more deer to hunt)-when killed the wolf: “..saw the green fire die, sensed that neither the wolf nor the mountain agreed with such a view”-killing off wolves messes up the ecosystem-Robert Frost Reading: “A Brook in the City”-urbanization from an unusual perspective-describing what happens when a city expands to encompass what was once farmland.-Rush Limbaugh Reading:-radio commentator-Radon(natural occurrence)=no hysteria-oil spills (man-made/anthropogenic occurrence)= hysteria-“Earth is a remarkable creation and is capable of great rejuvenation. We can’t destroy it. It can fix itself…We have a right to use earth to make our lives better”-Hardin Reading: “Tragedy of Commons”-Professor of biology at UNCA Santa Barbara -Multiple individuals, acting independently, and solely and rationally consulting their own self-interest will ultimately deplete a shared limited resource, when it is clear that it is not in anyone’s long-term interest for this to happen-sheep example-HIPPO: Habitat, Invasive Species, Population growth, Pollution, Over-consumption -Impacts biodiversity-Natural change + Anthropogenic change = Total Ecological Change-Sustainable Development: making current choices so that the quality of life stays the same for future generations-Environmental-Societal-Economical-Anthropocentric: human-centered-earth exists for human use-human kind is the most important*Limbaugh mind-set-Biotic: planet-centered-all species are equally important/valuable-nature must be cared for (precautionary principle)*Harding mind-set-Big Five/Six Elements/Cycles1. Carbon2. Hydrogen3. Oxygen4. Nitrogen5. Phosphorus6. Sulfur/Rock (?)-Biodiversity: variety of organic organisms in a given area, variety of genetic variation within a population, variety of species in a community, variety of communities in an ecosystem.-species diversity-ecosystem diversity-genetic diversity-Adaptable species: easily adaptable to different ecosystems (more genetic diversity)-Niche species: cannot adapt if change in habitat (less genetic diversity)-Biodiversity Applicability (national capital)-Importance of agriculture (variety of plants and crops)-Importance of Human Life/Healthcare (production of variety of food, medications)-Industrial Importance (production of material: fibers, dyes, oils, rubber)-Food Web: every species depends on or is dependent upon another-Keystone Species: species critical to the functioning of the ecosystem, affects the survival and abundance of many other species in its community.-Trophic levels: transfer of energy -1st: producers (plants)-2nd: primary consumers (herbivores)-3rd: secondary consumers (omnivores/carnivores)-4th: tertiary consumers (top carnivores)-Abiotic/Biotic-Producers(autotrophs): harvest energy from solar radiation or inorganic materials-Consumers (heterotrophs): obtain energy from consuming producers or other organisms-Scavengers/Saprophytes: survive on the energy provided in the molecules of deceased organisms-Niche(job in ecosystem)-decomposers-herbivores-omnivores-carnivores-Habitat determining factors:-terrestrial or aquatic-near food supply-temp range-altitude-Interaction/Symbiosis:-Predation-Commensalism (one benefits, other unaffected)-Mutualism (both benefit)-Parasitism (one benefits, other harmed)-Biomes (terrestrial and aquatic)-Aquatic Biomes:-Littoral Zone (shore line)-Pelagic Zone (top ½ of water)-Benthic Zone (bottom of body of water)-Estruary (where salt and freshwater meet/mix)-IUCN Red List-International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red list of Endangered/Threatened species-HIPPCO- Habitat destruction, Invasive species, Population dynamics, Pollution/Pesticides, Climate Change, Overexploitation (poaching).-ESact- endangered species act.(1973) An Act to provide for the conservation of endangered and threatened species of fish, wildlife, and plants, and for other purposes.-CITES- Convention for International Trade in Endangered Species; putting regulation on trade of specimens of wild animals and plants so that it cannot endanger species-Monoculture: producing 1 crop/plant over a wide area and large # consecutive years -Reconciliation ecology- Studies ways to encouraged biodiversity in human-dominate ecosystems, promote coexistence.-The “gens”- Carcinogens (risk of cancer), Mutagens (reshape DNA), Teratogens(embryo development)-LD50- median lethal dose of toxin, radiation, pathogens required to kill ½ population.-REACH- Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, Chemical Regulation. Address production & use of chemical substances and their potential impacts on human health and the environment-Global Warming/GCC- recent global rise in global average temp. Vs. change in climate: temp, wind, weather patterns during several decades or longer.-Atmospheric Pollutants/Greenhouse Gases-N20 nitrogen dioxide NOx, CO-Carbon Monoxide, CH4 Methane, CFC Chlorofluorocarbons, Particulate Matter, O3 Ozone-Localvore-person dedicated to eating food grown & produced locally -Food Security-Pests-Polyculture- Agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems-Traditional (making profit, labor and capital) vs. Ecological Economics (sustainable scale, just distribution, allocative efficiency; accounts for all externalities-retailers, processors, wholesalers, traders, producing countries, growers)-How population Increases-Fertility-Age-Science/Technology/Medicine-Food Supply/growth-Hygiene-TFR = TBR-TDR (total fertility rate equals total birth rate minus total death rate)-Replacement Rate (babies replace those who die, families make two babies to ‘replace’ them)-J and S curve, Carrying capacity-Demographic transition (4 phases)-Types of land use-Natural Vs. Built EnvironmentScientists:-Arrhenius (discovered CO2 increases then temp increases)-Norman Borlaug (GMOs, Dwarf wheat, increased food supply, food security, feed underdeveloped countries. CONs: do not know what is going into your food, not natural,-John Snow and the Broad Street Pump: father of epidemiology, traced outbreak of cholera in England. Disease/germs on water pump spread)-Socolow


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MC ENV 101 - Final Review

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