UF HIS 3931 - Final Exam Review Part 1

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HIS3931-Nazi GermanyFinal Exam Review Part 1 1. The Führer Cult- Fuhrerprinzip. German Christians united all Protestant churches into a single Reich church under one bishop. Ludwig Muller became the Reich bishop and German Christians took over church offices. The Fuhrerprinzip victory was short lived when the attempts to Nazify the Protestant Churches aroused opposition. In 1933, the Pastors Emergency League was established opposing the nazification and rejected Nazi racial doctrines, by 1934 4000 pastors had joined. 2. The Immortals- The 16 Nazi members who died during the Beer Hall Pusch(Nov.1923) hailed as disciples of the Nazi movement. Hitler memoralized them with a national holiday called “The Day of the Fallen” in 1935 with a passionate reenactment every year in Munich3. Law for the Encouragement of Marriage(1933)- Newly married couples received a government loan of 1,000 Reichsmarks, with a scale system of loans that were increasingly forgiven the more children one had. Women who had over 8 children were given the Motherhood Cross on Hitler’s mothers birthday. Abortions were outlawed andcontraceptives hard to come by4. Lebensborn –(Spring of Life) a series of homes set up in 1935 for the care of mothers, wed and unwed, established by Himmler to give the state their children for adoption. These homes were well furnished and lavishly supplied, even in wartime. About 8000 children were born in German Lebensborn homes. 5. Hitler Youth- An organization that strove to indoctrinate the youth of Germany with the ideological values of National Socialism. Established in 1926 with Kurt Gruber as its leader, succeeded by the dynamic Baldur von Schirach. Members of Hitler Youth were primarily from the lower-middle and working classes. After the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 the membership exploded to 3.5 million. Schirach made the structure of 2 groups based on age- the Jungvolk ages 10-14, and the Hitler Jugend ages 14-18. In 1939, the group became compulsory for all children. Hitler Youth leaders inculcated fervent patriotism, military values, the need to serve Germany selflessly, and utter devotion to Adolf Hitler. Many former Hitler Youth found the camping trips, sporting events, and comradeship as positive experiences.6. League of German Girls – integrated into Hitler Youth in 1932. The female counter-part was organized as the Jungmadel(10-14) and Bund Deutscher Madel(14-18). The girls were indoctrinated in the principles of service, regimentation, obedience, and discipline-so as to shape dutiful wives and mothers. By 1937 membership was at 3 million. The girls learned Nazi songs and facts, had sports meetings, camping and hiking. The older girls were focused on domestic skills, nursing, and hygiene for raising robust children. Atage 18, the girls had to join Faith and Beauty which emphasized social graces, encouraged dancing, and fashion sense.HIS3931-Nazi GermanyFinal Exam Review Part 1 7. Hitlerjunge Quex- 1933 Propaganda feature film about an Aryan boy whose father is a sleazy, unfit communist. He learns that fulfillment comes with the rejection of his family and his belonging in his Hitler Youth unit. Quex, the young protagonist, dies in the end, thus emphasizing not only rebellion against politically unreliable parents, but also the Nazi theme of self-sacrifice and martyrdom. “The flag means more than death”8. Triumph of the Will- the official propaganda film of the 1934 Party Day directed by Leni Riefenstahl. The film covered the 1934 Nuremburg Rally (Party Day) and was to demonstrate, in the wake of the purge of the SA on June 30th, that the Nazi Party was strongly united behind its leader. The marching columns, the Hitler Youth Camps, the swastika flags-all were towards propaganda purpose. The film was a success not only forits technical qualities but also forceful and dramatic in conveying to viewers the power and unity of National Socialism. Religion is a major theme, the film opens with Hitler descending god-like out of the skies.9. Winterhilfswerk- was an annual drive by the Nazi’s to help finance charitable work. Its slogan was "None shall starve nor freeze". The drive was originally set up under the government of Heinrich Brüning in 1931, though Hitler would later claim sole credit. It ran from 1933-1945 during the months of October through March, and was designed to provide food, clothing, coal, and other items to less fortunate Germans during the inclement months. Was significant in that it undermined Churches and Religious organizations by not allowing them to do charitable work. Sterilization Law- est. in 1933. Compulsory sterilization for the mentally disabled, and it also demanded abortion if a mentally disabled woman was already pregnant. Others deemed asocial, such as Gypsises, alcoholics, and some communists were subject to this law even though not disabled at all. Between 1933-39, 400,000 people were sterilized. Even math problems in schools were used to instill in children how the mentally ill and physically deformed were “useless eaters.”10. “The Reich Committee for the Scientific Registration of Serious Hereditary and Congenitally Based Illnesses.”- established on 18 August 1939, three weeks after the killing a mentally disabled boy as requested by his father. It was to prepare and proceed with the registration of ill children or newborns identified as defective. Secret killing of infants began in 1939 and increased after the war started. By 1941, more than 5,000 children had been killed.11. T-4- 1939. The 2nd phase of the sterilization program: Adult Euthanasia. The handicapped would be killed to make room for wounded troops, called “mercy killing of the incurably sick.” Bouhler also said that there would be no laws published regarding the program, because Hitler was concerned what the foreign press would say. Organizations were established for choosing and transporting victims to 6 euthanasia locations and the bodies cremated. About 100,000 killed. As a result of public protestHIS3931-Nazi GermanyFinal Exam Review Part 1 and a powerful sermon by Catholic bishop Galen, Hitler suspended the T-4 program in 1941, many of those worked in T-4 were transferred to the killing operations of the Holocaust. 12. Der Stürmer- Anti-Semitic newspaper run by Julius Streicher from 1923-1945. It was a significant part of the Nazi propaganda machinery and was vehemently anti-Semitic. Unlike the Völkischer Beobachter, the official

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