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HIS3931- Midterm Hitler & Nazi Germany June 20141. Otto Van Bismark- Prime Minister under Wilhelm I. He united the German states through 3 successful wars. The 1st against Denmark, the 2nd against Austria, and the 3rd being the Franco-Prussian War in 1870-71. 2. Wilhelm II - 2nd Kaiser of a United Germany. Emperor during WWI. 3. Stab-In-the-Back - German Political Right propaganda that blamed the German Left (socialist, communist, Jews) for losing WWI. "An English General said with justice: 'The German Army was stabbed in the back.' No guilt applies to the good core of the army. Its achievements are just as admirable as those of the officer corps."-Paul Von Hindenburg4. Paul Von Hindenburg- The Rock. Basically ran a military dictatorship with Ludendorff. 5. Erich Ludendorff - The Brains. Good battle field commander, not good at overall picture.6. Operation Michael - German Troops from the dissolved Eastern Front join the Western Front, briefly outnumbered the British and French before America joined the War._____________________________________________________________________________________1. Protocols of the Elders of Zion - was an Anti-Semitic text that appeared shortly after 1900. Purportedly to be the secret minutes of Jewish elders who plant take over the world first by creating political, financial, and cultural chaos. The Jews would create the chaos by using their power in finance, the media, and politics. Once life became unbearable in the western world, the masses would turn to the Jews for leadership. It was supposedly a masterful conspiracy on a global scale in which all Jews were involved. 2. August Kubizek - Hitler’s friend in youth. Kubizeck joined him in Vienna pre-WWI; he gave accounts of Hitler’s early life. 3. Karl Lueger - Mayor of Vienna, and leader of the Anti-Semitic Christian social party. Hitler referred to him as the greatest German mayor of all time. He admired Lueger’s use of propaganda to appeal to the masses. 4. Mein Kampf - Hitler’s political philosophy released in 1925. Was very clear how Hitler saw the world, the set of problems Germans faced, and the remedies that Germans had to take. 5. Beer Hall Pusch - Coup attempt in Munich organized by Hitler, inspired by Mussolini’s march on Rome. Was a disaster, the Nazis met armed resistance; Hitler was arrested and charged with high treason. He served 9 months, and wrote his political philosophy, Mein Kampf.HIS3931- Midterm Hitler & Nazi Germany June 20146. German Workers Party - Believed in the stab-in-the-back and believed that socialists and communists had been responsible for the same, and who saw the world in social Darwinist terms. In 1919 Hitler joined and quickly became the head. In 1921, Hitler renamed the party to NSDAP(National Socialist German Workers Party). 7. Rhineland - Occupied by Allied forces, shutdown German industrialization. 8. Polish Corridor - Gave Poland access to the Baltic Sea which displaced 1.5 million Germans. Pissed off a lot of Germans as they saw Poles as inferior. 9. Ruhr Occupation - France sent troops to Ruhr Valley to enforce delivery of German goods to France as reparation payment. 10. Inflation of 1923 - Germany responded to the Ruhr occupation by printing money, which absolutely wrecked German currency and the economy. Soon a loaf of bread cost millions. Right Wing Germans used this as fuel for their propaganda. 11. German Communist Party(KPD )- Split from the SPD, dedicated to class warfare and the communist ideal of a worker controlled dictatorship in which all property would be held communally. Attempted coup in 1919, put down in bloody fashion by remnants of German Army. 12. Social Democratic Party of Germany(SPD )- wanted a democratic government, a new constitution, and moderate government policies to benefit the working class. Split in to 2 factions, majority stayed loyal to party while a minority turned to Bolshevism, effectively becoming the KPD. 13. Treaty of Versailles - Officially ended WWI, perceived by Germans as especially unfair. Germany lost a number of territories, including the Polish Corridor containing 1.5 million Germans. Allied forces occupied the Western part of the Rhineland and kept them demilitarized permanently. The army was limited to 100,000 troops, the navy stripped, no air force was allowed. Had to pay War Reparations- $132 billion Marks ($32 Billion dollars)._____________________________________________________________________________________1. Rudolf Hess- The party secretary who relayed the party line to the Gauleiters, a devotee of Hitlerfrom the start who had served time with him in prison.HIS3931- Midterm Hitler & Nazi Germany June 20142. Gauleiters- The Nazi organizational effort divided Germany into Gau's (party districts). Gauleiterswere the party district leaders who would drum up new party members in their districts. All Gauleiters took orders from the NSDAP in Munich. 3. Joseph Goebbels - started Der Angriff, a local party newspaper that specialized in character assassination and sensationalism of the worst kind. He also made the SA there a coherent force, held mass meetings, and he started violent street fights with communists and socialists to the point where the Nazis were banned in Berlin from May 1927 to April 1928. He became Minister for Propaganda and Public Enlightenment. When Goebbels became Minister and it was his job from then until the end of the regime to place a gloss on the ever-expanding dictatorship. 4. SA (Sturmabteilung) - This was a uniformed paramilitary organization, the purpose of which was street fighting, security for party members, and the breaking up of the meetings of rival parties.5. Young Plan - was a program for settling German reparations debts after World War I written in 1929 and formally adopted in 1930. It was presented by the committee headed (1929–30) by American Owen D. Young. The Inter-Allied Reparations Commission established the German reparation sum at 132 billion gold marks. After the Dawes Plan was put into operation in 1924, itbecame apparent that Germany could not meet the annual payments, especially over an indefinite period of time. The Young Plan reduced further payments to 112 billion Gold Marks, equivalent to US $8 billion in 1929 (US$ 110 billion in 2014) over a period of 59 years, which would end in 1988.6. Heinrich Brüning - the German Chancellor in 1930, and leader of the Catholic Center Party. He

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