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CLP 4134Abnormal Child PsychologyLecture Notes Exam 4If you want to find notes for a specific date (ex: 7/8) or topic (autism), press Ctrl F on yourkeyboard (Command F for Mac users) and type in what you want to find. It’ll search thedocument for whatever specific word/phrase you typed in and save you the time of scrollingthrough everything!Also, this set of notes may exclude material found in the Powerpoints. This is because they areavailable on Blackboard so there is really no need to have them typed out here. (They are also free :)--------------------Tues 7/8Intellectual disability (ID)IQ standardized- in bell curve, normal distribution2.5% of people have IQ under 70Severity criteriaAdaptive functioning NOT IQIQ less valid measure at low end b/c small sampleAdaptive functionNot enough to have IQ under 70Must be able to meet daily demandsConcept- speech, money skills, basic reading skillsSocial- interaction, lack of gullibility, following rules/lawsPractical- eat, dress, bathe, toilet, clean house, have jobIQ stabilityW/o disability, unstable from 0-1 yr but pretty stable from 4-12 yrW/ disability, stabilizes earlierProtective factors- stimulating environment (for mild ID only)Risk factors- prolonged stress/cortisolPrenatal environment influences chanceGenes/biology 60% of influence, environment 40% of influenceFlynn effectApparent increase in IQ over past decades+3 IQ every 10 yrsChanging measurement standards?- new meanChanges in enviro/nutrition?- no strong evidenceEducational placementsRacial difsTest bias towards certain culturesReferral bias- more likely to get referred if a certain raceBiological difs- requires burden of proofEnvironment/SES- has most proofClinical IDConsistent difs from ppl w/ average IQSpeech + language- express less than they can understand, not as good at using wordsSocial skills impairmentSeverity related to IQ but not guaranteedDifs among IDAmount of support neededSelf-care skillsDiagnostic criteriaVery low intelligence- IQ under 70Impaired adaptive function in 2+ areasNOT same as lack of experience/exposurePresent by age 18Mild ID85% of ID cases, IQ 55-70Usu. Diagnosed in kindergartenCan communicate + engage w/ peers6th grade education levelAdults can live + work on ownRequire support in unfamiliar situationsModerate ID10% of ID cases, IQ 40-54More severe ID = less commonDiagnosed in preschoolUses single words + gesturesNeeds support in many areasAdults usu. Can do self-care on ownSevere ID3-4% of ID cases, IQ 25-39Delayed physical milestones- walking, toilet trainingMore severe ID = more physical symptoms = more likely genetic causeProblems w/ mobility + cardiovascular system13-15 yr kid has abilities of 4-6 yr oldCan’t live on ownUsu. Adapt well to group homeProfound ID1-2% of ID cases, IQ under 25Abnormal facial features from infancySensory impairment- unresponsive to touch/etcExtensive support needed for entire lifeEating, toilet, bathing, dressing, moving aroundDSM-IV vs DSM-VIV used IQ, higher inter-rater reliabilityV and AAIDD uses impairmentGood for seeing if ppl need helpStandardized impairmentDemographic difs1-3% for mild IDID more common in males (mild/moderate)From reporting difs/genes?Race- SES correlations for mild ID, no difs for severe IDEnviro can cause small changes/improvement for mild cases but not severe onesSevere = genetic cause?Learned helplessnessLack of control over avoiding pain/failure  stop tryingMeans they won’t learn thru experience that they actually can do thingsMiss out on what they actually are capable ofSupport minimizes learned helplessnessChanging abilitiesEven if IQ can’t change, adaptive function can“Mental retardation” no longer official termPrejudice, stigma, mockery/jokes, stereotypes“Intellectual disability” isSupport systems, organizations, help groups, humanitarianismDown SymdromeAttachment difs- same social needs but use less signals for showing they need somethingNeed to be held but don’t cry/hold arms up/grab mom’s armLess signals  less comforted  less secure attachmentSense of Self difsCan recognize self in mirrorImpaired language + emotion regulationHarder to express how they’re feelingCan’t get out their feelings  harder to deal with feelingsSocialCan play games with others, esp. those with clear rulesHarder to read social cues/nonverbal messages/unspoken rulesCauses of ID1000+ genes correlated w/ ID2/3 of moderate/severe/profound caused by genes1/3 of mild caused by genesMajority of ID unexplainedGenotype- genesPhenotype- expressed trait, from genes x environmentHeritability- how much trait is caused by genesEnviro influencesAdoption studies2 siblings born in low SES enviro1 adopted into higher SESAdopted one less likely to have ID (exposure to stimulation)Fraternal twin studies50% shared genesGreater similarity in ID than regular siblingsShared prenatal enviroSingle gene influencesPhenylketonuria (PKU)- rare recessive geneMetabolic disorder- can’t digest pheny. b/c missing an enzymeAcid builds up in bodyBrain damage, body odor, seizuresFetal alcohol spectrum disorderWide range of effectsMost common preventable cause of IDCaused by even less than 1 drink/day1-2 per 1000 birthsProblems w/ Central nervous system, growthMild ID, hyperactiveThurs 7/10Autism main defecitsSocial + communicationFixated interests + repetitive behaviorsSocial impairmentLack of reciprocity- ignore other peopleDon’t pay attention to fact that another person is trying to interact w/ themDon’t look at people talking to them or respond appropriately to comments/questionsOnly notice objects/actionsImpaired interpersonal relationsPoor social communication- blank facial expression, unresponsive“ I don’t need to make faces at toys/computers/etc so why make them at people?”Poor joint attention- don’t pay attention to same thing another person is, no connectionSeem off in own worldAttachment impairmentSome normal behavior- prefer mom to strangerSecure base- don’t signal need to return back to momStrange situation task- when mom leaves they wander around room + occupy themselfDon’t get upset and try to get mom backCommunicationTypical 3 yr old- respond to name, point to desired toy, say no, facial expressionsAutistic 3 yr old- point to desired toy (may do a few of the others too)Gestures for physical things in instrumental/practical wayNot to connect with othersMay use words but w/o meaningPerservative speech- incessant questions about random thingsMight be their way of

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