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CLP4134 Abnormal Child Psychology Unit 3 NotesCh. 7 Anxiety 1. Anxiety includes four [book says 3] types of symptoms. Name, define, and be prepared to recognize examples of all four types. a. What is Anxiety?i. Anxiety is a condition/experience of being afraid 1. Anxiety is also anxious anticipation ii. Four types of symptoms: [Reference the textbook]1. Physiological or Somatic Symptoms  activation of Sympathetic NS produces many important chemical / physical effects that mobilize the body for actiona. Chemical, cardiovascular, respiratory, & sweat gland effects b. Fight/Flight response produces general activation of the entiremetabolism i.  Hot/flushed b/c activation takes a lot of energy 2. Behavioral symptoms  “fight or flight” response [behavioral = flight = avoidance], faking illness, related to avoidance to whatever is causing anxiety a. Avoidance perpetuates anxiety, despite the temporary feeling of reliefi. Avoidance behaviors are negatively reinforced  strengthened when they are followed by a rapid reduction in anxiety (eventually making it very difficult to carry out everyday activities)3. Cognitive Symptoms  “why do I feel this tension?”  what is going onin my environment that I need to bring my attention to a. Main purpose of fight/flight is to signal possible danger  immediate search for potential threat b. Children can’t focus on everyday tasks b/c their attention is consumed by a constant search for threat or danger c. Activation of cognitive system  subjective feelings of apprehension, nervousness, difficulty concentrating, and panic 4. Emotional Symptoms  dread, embarrassment, fear  consistent with thought (cognitive symptoms)b. i.e., Chantelle’s Terror of Being Home Alone i. Reaction shows 3 out of 4 response systems 1. Physical  heart pounding, tensed up, difficulty breathing 2. Cognitive  could not think clearly 3. Behaviorally  completely immobilized 2. What is the fight-or-flight response, and what does it have to do with adaptive, or normal anxiety? Pathological anxiety?a. Why do we get anxious?i. “Fight or Flight”  an immediate reaction to perceived danger or threat 1. Not useful in modern dayb. The Fight-or-Flight Response i. Threatening situations  body prepares to use energy ii. Sympathetic NS prepares to use energy (excited by hypothalamus) 1CLP4134 Abnormal Child Psychology Unit 3 Notesiii.  Stimulates organs iv.  Parasympathetic NS returns body to normalc. Most anxiety symptoms are exaggerations of adaptive fight/flight response or usual fight/flight response in a situation where they’re not useful 3. How is maladaptive anxiety (i.e., not useful, likely to be part of a disorder) different from normal anxiety (i.e., useful, and not likely to be part of a disorder)? a. Adaptive or Maladaptive b. Negative Reinforcement c. Adaptive vs. Maladaptive Anxiety  to decide if it is Adaptive or Maladaptive i. Are concerns realistic? ii. Proportional to the threat? iii. Persistent in the absence of threat? iv. Distress or impairment? 1. How is someone doing in important life areas?2. If problems in major life areas  impairment a. Worried about impairment  distress 4. [Different from book] How are the following terms related: anxiety, fear, panic? Differentiating anxiety from fear and panica. Anxiety, Fear, & Panic [do NOT reference book]i. Anxiety includes four components 1. Emotions (fear, embarrassment)2. Cognitions 3. Behaviors 4. Somatic / Physiological ii. Panic is a specific combination of anxiety symptoms iii. Fear  an emotional symptom of anxiety 5. What is known about the normal expression of fear, anxiety, worry, and rituals / repetitive behaviors? How can these normal expressions be differentiated from abnormal ones (i.e., symptoms)? a. Normal Feared Stimuli i. Appropriate age ii. Short duration  fear is normal for most young children to come and go; important to consider duration iii. Absence of impairment 1. Is this maladaptive? Does it cause problems? iv. Age patterns  most fears decrease with age 1. Changed in an expected or unexpected way? Expecting a decrease but itincreases 2. Observe child over time b. Normal Anxiety i. Common 1. ~25% of children 2. i.e., Separation from parents, taking tests, responsibilities ii. Usually decrease with age iii. Temperament effects 2CLP4134 Abnormal Child Psychology Unit 3 Notes1. Some have problematic anxiety but some are more adaptive 2. Positive Emotionality 3. Negative Emotionality a. Most clearly related to anxiety disorder b. Children with high NE are not more likely to develop anxiety disorder, has to be a 3rd factorc. Very focused on what would happen if something bad happened (i.e., kid forgetting lines in school play) i. Having all the physical, cognitive, emotional, behavioral symptoms 4. Effortful Control a. Child also has low effortful control i. In order to avoid symptoms he begins to play video games (instead of rehearsing his lines)  negative reward b/c his physiological symptoms and anxiety is relieved but this will lead to the event of him forgetting his lines in school playc. Normal Worry i. Helps anticipate real problems ii. Differences in intensity iii. Realistic vs. Unrealistic 1. Differences in topic2. Strangers, school, parent injury 3. Safety, school work, embarrassment d. Normal Rituals i. Routine is useful 1. Control & predictability, BUT 2. May be too rigid  impairment a. i.e., Boy wants to read particular book before bed every night, but what happens when they go on vacation and child reacts negatively (rigid) to a change in a routine 6. During what age range is separation anxiety typical? How is typical, adaptive, separation, anxietydifferent from pathological separation anxiety [age of onset & severity?] ?a. Separation Anxiety i. Normal 7 months to preschool  After preschool Pathological 1. Develop a preference for primary care taker 2. Preschool is the first time they are separated from parentii. Can cause impairment  [Pathological / Maladaptive]1. School attendance 2. Social interactions iii. Unintentionally rewarded by parents? 1. Parents add something that the child likes  rewarding the clinginess (demonstration of anxiety from separation from the parent)7. How could separation anxiety lead to depression? a. Separation Anxiety & Depression i. Pathway to depression 3CLP4134 Abnormal Child Psychology Unit 3 Notes1. 50% prevalence (very rare to have

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