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UNIT 2 Speech Production Speech Sounds Altering air flow Vocal Tract Extensive Limited number in human languages The sounds needed for ALL human languages can be learned developed during the early stages of cognitive and physical development Airstream Mechanics Produce Speech Sounds Relax diaphragm and push air from lungs trachea vocal cords of the larynx and pharynx exit through the oral cavity of the mouth or the nasal cavity of the nose Pulmonic Egressive airstream mechanism air originates in the lungs and exits through the mouth or nose Ejectives egressive sound made when air moves out of the mouth as the result of closed vocal cords releasing Ingressive airstream mechanisms Implosives Air sucked into mouth Clicks Air moved around in the mouth http www npr org player v2 mediaPlayer html action 1 t 1 islist false id 4485219 m 4486849 Spelling Doesn t Equal Pronunciation Alphabet developed to represent sounds of all languages In 1888 By International Phonetics Association Named International Phonetic Alphabet IPA No correspondence between sound and symbol Types of Writing Systems Two Primaries Consonants Vowels alphabets Abjads Consonant Alphabets Independent letters for consonants Indicate vowels with consonant letters and or diacritics Examples Arabic Hebrew Roots made up from 3 consonants Common in West Asia North Africa Alphabets Phonemic Alphabets Letters for consonants and vowels Letters Letter combinations can represent ONE sound Letters Letter combinations can represent MULTIPLE sounds Same sounds can be written in different ways Examples English Czech Latin Roman Cyrillic Latin Roman Cyrillic most widely used Adapted to write hundreds of different languages Syllabic Alphabets Abugidas Alphasyllabaries Main element is the syllable Syllables built of consonants Inherent vowels ka kha ga gha Diacritic symbols used to change or mute inherent vowel Separate vowel letters may be used when vowels are at the beginning of a Devanagari used to write Hindi Marathi Nepali Vowel diacritics are in red consonant clusters are used when two or more syllable or on their own consonants occur together without vowels between them Used in South South East Asia Syllables syllabaries Syllabaries Phonetic writing system Symbols representing syllables Syllables often consist of a consonant and a vowel or a single vowel Examples Japanese Hiragana and Inuktitu In Hiragana each syllable is represented by a separate symbol In Inuktitut the orientation of the symbols is used to indicate different vowels and the small symbol is used to write syllable final consonants as in Inuktitut Semanto phonetic writing systems Often represent sound and meaning Generally include a large number of symbols Several hundred to tens of thousands of symbols No theoretical upper limit to the number of symbols in some scrypts Scrypts are also called logophonetic morphophonemic logographic or logosyllabic Pictograms Logograms Resemble the things they represent Symbols that represent parts of words or whole words Examples above Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Chinese script Ideograms Ideographs Symbols which graphically represent abstract ideas Example ideographic Chinese characters Compound Characters in the Chinese script are semanto phonetic compounds they include a semantic element represents or hints at their meaning and a phonetic element shows or hints at their pronunciation Examples compound characters which all share a semantic element meaning horse regard for meaning Symbols are sometimes used for phonetic value alone without Example transliterating foreign names and loan words Undeciphered writing systems Writing systems not yet deciphered or only partially deciphered Other Writing and Communication Systems Alternative Scripts alternative scripts for English other languages Phonetic Alphabets used to phonetically indicate language pronunciation Other notation systems Braille Shorthand etc Language based communication systems Morse Code Semaphore etc Magical Alphabet Enochian Theban etc Fictional Scripts writing systems in books films computer games Constructed Scripts invented by visitors to Omniglot Constructed Scripts for natural languages Chinese English Korean Tagalog and more Phonetic universal scripts Constructed Scripts for constructed languages Adaptations of existing alphabets Phonetic Symbols for English Consonants and Vowels Phonetic Symbols Written in square brackets Represent sounds and not letters Speech Sounds English Consonants Made by passing air through the vocal tract States of glottis Place of articulation Manner of articulation English Phonetics Symbol Key p ot b ale t able d ance c at g oat p b t d k s p ot a b out s t ick o d or s k ip i g loo u h oh ki tt en a tt end cashe d a pp le stu bb le tra d e c lassic bi gg er bu tt on to p cra b gol d q uiet ost gh slo p e tu b e gra t e brai d e d orus ch ta g f v s z h m n l r w y f ish v ery th ink th ere s i s ter z ebra sh oe a z ure h appy g in g er m onkey n ickel l ast r abbit be tt er w ater wh ere y ellow ph one o v er th irty o th er a ss ert plea s e sta ti on ca s ual wh ose j unk s m all s n ake ho ll ow t r ash la dd er q u ick tra ff ic a v oid A th ens ba th e po s ter X erox in s ure lei s ure re hab le g ion si mm er ri ng s l ow pa r ty ligh t er s w amp deli ci ous impre ss ion trea s ure free si a tou gh glo v e ba th la th er C el s iu s ro s e s h ostel na t ure frin g e ta m e ki ng dom sta l e ciga r sa f e sil v er apa th y th ose sc ent rea s on olesome wh ar ch er indivi d ual cli m b reign a ng le sta ll ench wr hea t er lea d er t w ist wh ich wh en wh ile isper wh wh en u tility p ew ter b ea uty y oung eese ch pit ch er it ch ha ng er pi n k ba nn er ight kn States of the glottis Larynx During Speech Houses 2 bands of muscles vocal folds vocal cords Normal breathing folds are relaxed spread apart Space between cords during the relaxed state is the glottis Vocal fords are separated or partially constricted When separated with no vibrations the sounds is voiceless Folds vibrate during constriction as air exits lungs producing sound Sounds from vibrating vocal folds are called voiced Examples say ZOO the z sound is made with vibrating folds Now say SUE the s sound is is made with NO vibration Additional examples vat fat save safe thy thigh teeth teethe ridge rich Voiced Consonants b d v z m n l r w y Voiceless Consonants p t k f s h Place of Articulation Articulation The obstruction of airflow out of the lungs at

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UNT LING 3060 - Speech Production

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