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UNIT 2Speech ProductionSpeech SoundsAltering air flowVocal TractExtensiveLimited number in human languagesThe sounds needed for ALL human languages can be learned / developed during the early stages of cognitive and physical development.Airstream MechanicsProduce Speech SoundsRelax diaphragm and push air from lungs -> trachea -> vocal cords of the larynx and pharynx -> exit through the oral cavity of the mouth or the nasal cavity of the nose.Pulmonic Egressive airstream mechanism – air originates in the lungs and exits through the mouth or nose.Ejectives – egressive sound made when air moves out of the mouth as the result of closed vocal cords releasingIngressive airstream mechanismsImplosives – Air sucked into mouthClicks – Air moved around in the mouthhttp://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=4485219&m=4486849Spelling Doesn’t Equal PronunciationAlphabet developed to represent sounds of all languagesIn 1888By International Phonetics AssociationNamed International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)No correspondence between sound and symbolTypes of Writing Systems (Two Primaries)Consonants & Vowels (alphabets)Abjads / Consonant AlphabetsIndependent letters for consonantsIndicate vowels with consonant letters and/or diacriticsExamples: Arabic & HebrewRoots made up from 3 consonantsCommon in West Asia & North AfricaAlphabets / Phonemic AlphabetsLetters for consonants and vowelsLetters & Letter combinations can represent ONE soundLetters & Letter combinations can represent MULTIPLE soundsSame sounds can be written in different waysExamples English, Czech, Latin, Roman, CyrillicLatin, Roman, & Cyrillic most widely usedAdapted to write hundreds of different languagesSyllabic Alphabets / Abugidas / AlphasyllabariesMain element is the syllableSyllables built of consonantsInherent vowels (ka kha, ga gha)Diacritic symbols used to change or mute inherent vowelSeparate vowel letters may be used when vowels are at the beginning of a syllable or on their own.Devanagari, used to write Hindi, Marathi, NepaliVowel diacritics are in red, consonant clusters are used when two or more consonants occur together without vowels between themUsed in South & South East AsiaSyllables (syllabaries)SyllabariesPhonetic writing systemSymbols representing syllablesSyllables often consist of a consonant and a vowel or a single vowelExamples: Japanese Hiragana, and InuktituIn Hiragana each syllable is represented by a separate symbolIn Inuktitut the orientation of the symbols is used to indicate different vowels, and the small symbol is used to write syllable final consonants, as in InuktitutSemanto-phonetic writing systemsOften represent sound and meaningGenerally include a large number of symbolsSeveral hundred to tens of thousands of symbolsNo theoretical upper limit to the number of symbols in some scryptsScrypts are also called logophonetic, morphophonemic, logographic or logosyllabicPictograms & LogogramsResemble the things they representSymbols that represent parts of words or whole wordsExamples above: Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic & Chinese scriptIdeograms / IdeographsSymbols which graphically represent abstract ideasExample: ideographic Chinese charactersCompound Charactersin the Chinese script are semanto-phonetic compoundsthey include a semantic elementrepresents or hints at their meaning, and a phonetic elementshows or hints at their pronunciationExamples: compound characters which all share a semanticelement meaning 'horse'Symbols are sometimes used for phonetic value alone, withoutregard for meaningExample: transliterating foreign names and loan wordsUndeciphered writing systemsWriting systems not yet deciphered or only partially decipheredOther Writing and Communication SystemsAlternative Scripts - alternative scripts for English & other languagesPhonetic Alphabets - used to phonetically indicate language pronunciationOther notation systems - Braille, Shorthand, etcLanguage-based communication systems - Morse Code, Semaphore, etc.Magical Alphabet - Enochian, Theban, etc.Fictional Scripts - writing systems in books, films & computer gamesConstructed Scripts invented by visitors to OmniglotConstructed Scripts for natural languagesChinese, English, Korean, Tagalog and morePhonetic / universal scriptsConstructed Scripts for constructed languagesAdaptations of existing alphabetsPhonetic Symbols for English Consonants and VowelsPhonetic SymbolsWritten in square bracketsRepresent sounds and not lettersSpeech SoundsMade by passing air through the vocal tractEnglish ConsonantsStates of glottisPlace of articulationManner of articulationEnglish Phonetics Symbol Key[p] p ot s p ot a pp le to p slo p e [b] b ale a b out stu bb le cra b tu b e [t] t able s t ick a tt end cashe d gra t e [d] d ance o d or tra d e gol d brai d e d [k] c at s k ip c lassic q uiet ch orus [ɡ] g oat i g loo bi gg er gh ost ta g [ʔ] u h -oh ki tt en bu tt on[f] f ish ph one tra ff ic tou gh sa f e [v] v ery o v er a v oid glo v e sil v er [θ] th ink th irty A th ens ba th apa th y [ð] th ere o th er ba th e la th er th ose [s] s i s ter a ss ert po s ter C el s iu s sc ent [z] z ebra plea s e X erox ro s e s rea s on [ ʃ ] sh oe sta ti on in s ure deli ci ous impre ss ion [ʒ] a z ure ca s ual lei s ure trea s ure free si a [h] h appy wh ose re hab h ostel wh olesome [ʧ ] ch eese pit ch er it ch na t ure ar ch er [ʤ] g in g er j unk le g ion frin g e indivi d ual [m] m onkey s m all si mm er ta m e cli m b [n] n ickel s n ake ba nn er kn ight reign[ŋ] ha ng er pi n k ri ng ki ng dom a ng le [l] l ast ho ll ow s l ow sta l e sta ll [r] r abbit t r ash pa r ty ciga r wr ench [ɾ] be tt er la dd er ligh t er hea t er lea d er [w] w ater q u ick s w amp t w ist wh en [ʍ] wh ere wh isper wh en wh ich wh ile [y] y ellow u tility p ew ter

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UNT LING 3060 - Speech Production

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