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Soc 205AuthorityThe socially acceptable ability of an individual or group to exercise will over the will of another.-Reasons people submit to authority-Believe it serves the greater good-Don’t realize there is an alternativeSources of Authority- Charismatic-Authority is derived from a sincere desire of the dominate to please the dominant-(popular, parents)-Traditional-authority is derived from the historic precedent (royalty) -Rational/Legal -Derived from a set of well know rules (elected officials, cops) Social InstitutionsAn organized system of relationships and expected behaviors working toward a single or group of wellunderstood goals. (Family, educational system, justice system, economy)-What do they do?-maintain stability, produce solidarity, replace lost members, replication of groups, produce and distribute both tangible and intangible goods. Solidarity-Idea from Durkheim-Comes in 2 forms-Mechanical solidarity -Feelings of linkage from similar activities-Organic solidarity -Feelings of linkage from specialization of labor(more stable, diverse)(exchange skills)How does this relate to you?-The structure vs. agency debate. -Structure is half of the patterns of society and half social institutionsFunctionalism/Structural FunctionalismEmile Durkheim-The idea that everything in society has a proper role and exists because it benefits society.-Society as an organization-helps society prosper, doesn’t fall away, structure exists because they provide a greater goodFunctional Analysis-Concept of solidarity-Contends that everything in society can be classified in terms of what it does for society-Manifest Function-Latent Function-Dys-functionOther ideas from DurkheimAnomie-Not knowing how to act-Feeling of normlessness in society-Related to divorce, suicide, depression (First date, First day of school)Conflict Theory Karl Marx -Rejection of functionalism-Different people have different goals-People benefit differently -Those in power do the bestConflict Analysis-Society is a battle over scarce resources and their production-Power is the reasonable ability of one person to bring real sanctions against another -Divided into two parts, social classes and those with power-corporations and individualsIdeas for conflict theory-Those in power will always seek to expand their power, making their class smaller-Those in power will work to keep those out of power divided through false consciousnessBiggest ideas-Alienation -From production, society -Power-Ability of individuals and groups to realize their will even against the will of others.Symbolic InteractionMax Weber-Reality comes from shared meaning and shared experience-Society is a series of exchanges, determined by each individualSocial ResearchQuantitative- research is measurable and can be accurately assessed through numeric measures -Surveys-Create useful measures-1 answer fits the person-Require random samples of the population Qualitative- research cannot be measured through surveys -Content analysis-Interviews, 1hour <-Observations -Essay test-Must allow concepts to arise from concepts -Start with open mind-Used to produce hypothesisCorrelation is not Causation-Correlation between ice cream and sexual assaults-More ice cream is sold because more people are out-Third variable (spuriousness) Rejection of Authority-Authority remains largely unchallenged when that authority is seen as legitimate -Institutions must maintain legitimacy to be able to extend authority-As legitimacy weakens a space for rejection of authority opensHow challenges of authority are carried out-Challenge charismatic?-Any challenge to charismatic authority is also challenges to legitimacy-Challenge Traditional?-Requires a radical action to change the cultural practice that enables the authority-Challenge Rational/Legal?-Have a processes were legitimacy could be challenged-We call the machinery of challenging authority Social Movements FamilyA group of individuals bound together by a common set of recognized expectations based on kinship-Sociologist address family as a social institutionTypes of MarriagePolygamy (Polygyny)- Practice of men multiple marriage partnersPolyandry- Practice of woman having more than one husbandMonogamy- Practice of a sexually exclusive marriage with one spouse Whom Marries Whom?Exogamy- Practice of selecting mates from outside ones groupEndogamy- Practice of selecting mates from inside ones groupIncest Taboo- generally considered to be universal, for example, is a cultural norm forbidding sexual relations and marriage between certain kinHomogamy- Generally in the US, select mates based on social characteristics similar to own Property and Descent?Patrilineal kinship system- Family lineage is traced through the family of the fatherMatrilineal kinship system- ancestry is traced through the motherBilateral kinship system- traced though both mother and father (US)Place of Residence?Patrilocal kinship system- after marriage, woman are separated from her own kinship and resides with husbandMatrilocal kinship system- women continues to live with her family of origin. Husband moves in with her but doesn’t loose his memberships in his own groupNeolocal residence- new couples establish their own residenceWho holds power?Patriarchy- men have power over womenMatriarchy- women hold powerEgalitarian societies- men and women hold equal powerTypes of marriage rituals?Dowry- System through which the female partner is considered less valuable and those desire marriage must produce a subsidy.-Found is less developed countries (labor is dependent on strength)Bride Price- System through which male partners must establish their worth by producing a subsidy to the brides custodians -Compensates for loss of labor in brides householdFamily in OriginClan Groups-Development of groups based on a common survival need-Need to produce large numbers of offspring to offset high morality-Multiple parents caring for multiple offspring-Families are adopted in through conquest High Parent and High Child MortalityClan Groups- Found up through the medieval era-Need to create large families for agricultural production-Family sized tied directly to survival -Encouraged to keep it in the family-Children viewed as investments-Widows given right to adjust family size-Marriage is purely economic arrangement-Emotional marriage was only for the upper crust-Divorce did not existHigh Parent and Medium Child Mortality Atomized Family- Renaissance through colonial

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OSU SOC 205 - Authority

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