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Lecture # 7, April 29th Readings: Bonilla Silva; Chapter 3, Bonilla Silva; Rethinking Racism, Loveman; Is Race Essential, Bonilla-Silva; The Essential Social Fact of Race 1. What is color blind racism as described by EBS?-Is based on materialist interpretation of racial matters and this sees the views of actors as corresponding to their systemic location 2. According to EBS, how does he describe racism?-Whites: prejudice (events, moments) -People of Color: it is systemic or institutionalized 3. According to EBS what is race?-Social Construct: is socially constructed but has very tangible affects-While constructed, it has a social reality-Produces a real effect on the actors radicalized as black, white or Asian 4. According to EBS what is racial structure?-Radicalized social system, awards systemic privileges to whites -the totality of the social relations and practices that reinforce white privilege 5. According to EBS what is racial ideology?-Racially based frameworks used by actors to explain and justify or challenge the racial status quo-How the racial structure is embedded and how the ideology reinforces the status quo-The organizational map that guides actions of racial actors in society6. What do EBS’s frames do?-set paths for interpreting information -how we understand society, how we process outcomes, how we explain stories-depending upon the frame we can understand the context differently 7. Define: Abstract Liberalism -Racism doesn’t exist because everyone in society has an equal chance -Based on idea of a free market society-Assumes meritocracy/competition -They earn lower wages because of lack of effort -Anti affirmative action programs because they think whoever is most qualified will get the job, argues it gives preferential treatment, ignores fact that people of color are underrepresented -Targets individual behavior versus ignoring the broader social context 8. Define: Naturalization-Allows whites to explain away racial phenomena by suggesting they are natural occurrences -Think segregation is natural and it is just the way things are-Suggests tat radicalized outcomes are a natural outcome -Implies there are not intervening forces that cause racism it just exists because they do -No institutions creating racism, so no point in trying to change it because that’s the way things are 9. Define: Cultural Racism -process associated with socialization among groups-People brought up differently and are taught to act a certain way so they end up in different placesin society: they don’t value education -Culturally based argument to explain status of people in society-Related to Culture of Poverty: adaptations or lifestyle related to an ethnic or racial group that leads to various outcomes-Certain outcomes exist because groups are just culturally deficient in some way 10. Define: Minimization of Racism -Discrimination no longer a major issue compared to the past-Points to examples of successful; people of color: they made it so can you -Based on notions that racism doesn’t matter to you -Points to class based analyses-Frame that takes around acknowledging that racism is occurring 11. Summary of ESB CBR Frames:1. Abstract Liberalism: definition: notions of equal opportunity Frames: the most qualified will get the job 2. NaturalizationDefinition: outcomes are naturalFrames: people live, work, eat with whom they are most comfortable3. cultural Racism:Definition: outcomes are about culture, (attitudes, behavior and beliefs) Frames: They aren’t successful because they don’t value education or work hard4. Minimization of Racism:Definitions: outcomes aren’t related to raceFrames: racism isn’t as bad today 12. Define: Structural Racism -The way governments and other private and public institutions systematically afford white people an array of social, political and economic advantages-embedded in every institution (government, market place, education etc) 13. Define: prejudice -The tendency of an individual to think about other groups in negative ways-A prejudice person thinks about other groups in terms of stereotypes which are generalizations that are thought to apply to group members -To attach negative emotions to those groups-To prejudice individuals on the basis of their group membership 14. What are the two kinds of individual prejudice? 1. Cognitive (thinking) 2. Affective (feeling15. Define: discrimination-The unequal treatment of a person or person based on group membership 16. Define: Ideological Racism -A belief system that asserts that a particular group is inferior, it is the group of societal equivalent of individual prejudice 17. Define: Institutional Discrimination -A pattern of unequal treatment based on group memberships that is built into the daily operations of society, whether or not it is consciously intended 18. According to EBS why isn’t the study of racism and racism just about ideology?-Because it is a part of a larger racial system -It is embedded in everything we do and everything is structured around race 19. Ex of raciailzed social systems?-economic, political, social and ideological levels structured around race20. Define: Racial Contestation-Struggle of racial groups for systematic changes re: their position 21. What are Loveman’s three critiques of EBS?1. Confounding categories with groups: -Just because they are labeled a race doesn’t mean that they take on that groups identity or associations -Shouldn’t look at groups already labeled but how people create boundaries and how boundariesare experienced 2. Reifying Race:-EBS says their socially constructed categories but treats them as real categories-Needs to figure out group the ground up how people are acting3. Maintaining the unwarranted analytical distinction between race and ethnicity:-We can never define racial categories without reference to race & ethnicity -race should always be abandoned as a category of analysis 22. What are Loveman’s three overall arguments?-Race should be abandoned as a category of analysis -Instead we should focus on boundary construction, maintenance and decline -Having a comparative sociology of group making 23. What are ESB’s 4 main comebacks to Loveman?1. Race exists as a social phenomenon wherever a racial structure is in place: always some type of racial structure in any society that you go to 2. race, like class or gender is always contingent but is also socially real: always context specific and informed by local contexts but is

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