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BIO 211Tunicates (urochordata) - more closely related to chordates- draw in water through incurrent siphon to filter food particles- when attacked- shoot water through excurrent siphon ***TUNI= SIPHON**gametophyte- haploid generation - in green algae and mosses the gametophyte generation is an actual, free living, haploid plant which produces gametes by mitosis --> gametohphyte dominant - todays plants: sporophyte (diploid) generation is dominant - gametophyte is not free living in seed plants sporophyte- diploid generation - generate haploid spores via meiosis - modern land plants: sporophyte dominant c, c, v, g, o, l, t, a (8)cute cats visit goldfish olta chordatates, craniates, vertebrates, gnathostomes, osthe, lobe fin, tetreapods, amniotesSUBPHYLUMScumpcaadarm (11)people can't always accept donation cephalochordataurochordatamyxinipetromyzontidachondrichthyesactinopterygiiactinistadipnoiamphibiareptilliamammaliachordates- notochordgnathostomes- jawosteichthyans- lungs or lung derivatives tetrapods- limbs with digits bilateral: LED - lophotochozoa - PLARM - ectysozoa - deuterostomes Chordatesnotochord- rod between digestive tube and nerve cord- skeletal support- skeleton develops and adult retains only remnants dorsal, hollow nerve cord- develops from plate of ectoderm - develops into central nervous system pharyngeal slits or clefts- suspension feeding- gas exchange- parts of ear, head, and neck, and jawpost-anal tailcephalochordata- lancelets: named for their shape, suspension feeders, retain chordate body plan urochordata- tunicates: more closely related to chordates, resemble chordates during larval stage. - incurrent siphon, outcurrent siphon craniates- neural crest: cells near dorsal part of closing neural tube - forms bones and cartilage of the skull- headmyxini- hagfish: bottom dwelling, host basal craniate, small brain and tooth like formations, cartilaginous skullvertebrates- during cambrian period- elaborate skull- fin rays in the aquatic from petromyzontida- lampreys: oldest vertebrae, clamp mouth onto live fish, cartilage around notochordgnathostomes- jaw, evolved from pharyngeal slits - outnumber jawless vertebrateschondrichthyes- chondrichthyans: sharks, rays, skates- skeleton of mostly cartilage - most oviparous and ovoviviparous Osteichthyes- bony endoskeleton - bony fish (fishes)- operculum: protect gill - swim bladder: buoyancy - lateral line system - most oviparous, but some have internal fertilization Actinopterygii - ray finned fishes - during silurian period- fins modified for maneuvering and defense - ex: yellow fin tuna, red lion fish, sea horse, eel, goby Lobe fins- originated in silurian- muscular pelvic and pectoral fins Actinistia- Coelacanths Dipnoi- lungfishes - africa, south america, australia - breathe air with one or two lungs Tetrapods- four limbs with digits- neck- fusion of pelvic girls of the backbone - absence of gills (except some aquatic species) - ears- Tiktaalik -- "fishpod" - Fins, gills, lungs, and scales (fish characteristics)- Ribs, neck, bony fin, flat skull, eyes on top (tetrapod characteristics) Amphibians - both ways of life- moist skin to complement lungs - external fertilization -- order urodela: salamanders-- order anura: frogs-- order apoda: caecilians - paedomorphosis: retaining larval characteristic even when mature Amniotesextra embryonic membranes: 1. amnion: membrane around embryo2. chorion: between fetus and mother3. yoke sac: early nourishment4. allantois: gas exchange and waste Reptiles- most= ectothermic, birds= endothermic lepidosaurs1. tuatara: lizard like reptiles2. squamates: lizards and snakes turtles- shell fuse to vertebrae, clavicle, and ribs crododilians - archosaur lineage birds- archosaurs with lots of modification for flight - wings with keratin - transitional fossil: archaeopteryx- toothed beck, wing class, long tail, airfoil wing- lack urinary bladder, females with one ovary, small gonads, no teethMammalia - development of mammary glands which produce milk -

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OSU BI 211 - Tunicates

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