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- A turgid plant cell is one that has excess water in its cytosol- Active transport requires energy and occurs against the concentration gradient across a cell membrane- Organic products of photosynthesis are directly loaded from sugar-producingcells into xylem vessel elements for rapid transport to sink tissues. False- The cohesion-tension theory explains the role of transpiration in long-distance water transport.- In early spring when leaves are not yet developed and photosynthetic processes don’t take place, starch storage can be converted into sugars, which are then transported through xylem sap to be used for bud morphogenesis. True.- The hormone receptor present on the plasma membrane of guard cells responsible for stomatal pore closing under conditions of water stress is the Abscisic Acid Receptor.- Unlike animals, plant are autotrophic and use sunlight, CO2, water, macronutrients (eg. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium), and micronutrients (eg. Zinc, copper, calcium) to synthesize vitamins as well as their own source of energy. True.- Knowledge of halophyte plant physiology gives scientists clues for developing-agricultural plants that might survive in environments that are desertic/acid.- Cellulose present in the plant cell wall is highly hydrophobic and slows down apoplastic transport. False.- Characteristics of most animalso They havehox geneso They are heterotrophico They have an extracellular matrix rich in scaffolding molecules such as collageno THEY DON’T HAVE CELL WALLS COMPOSED OF LARGE LINEAR SUGAR POLYMERSo They have a nervous system- The following are major morphological criterions on which traditional classification of animals is based… (All of the below)o Presence/absence of a true body cavityo Type of symmetryo Pattern of embryonic development- Coelomates are bilaterians that have a true fluid-filled body cavity that derived from the mesoderm layer during development. True.- In vertebrates, the developmental expression pattern of a specific isoform of the hoxC gene complex (hoxc-6) controls neck length and forelimb morphogenesis- Mammals that can control their internal body temperature regardless of changes in the surrounding environmental temperature as long as critical values are not reaches are considered to be regulators, endotherms.- The following is true of a tissue specialized for absorption of solutes from one compartment to another (eg. Small intestine)o Has a relatively large surface area/volume ratioo Is organized as a tight epithelium layer with one side in direct contact with dissolved-solutes- Sensory nerve free endings present in the skin contain cold detecting thermo-sensitive receptors that can stimulate shivering via the central nervous system to generate heat in muscles- Homoeostasis refers to the property of maintaining particular physiological variables such as body temperature and solute concentration absolutely constant. False.- Organization of a mammalian body from least to most complex is: celltissueorganorgan system- The resting potential of a neuron corresponds to a voltage across the axon membrane that does not conduct nerve impulses.- The movement f an ion across an axon membrane depends on the (all of the following)… direction of the nerve impulse, net elastic charges on both sides of the membrane, presence of channel and/or pumps specific for this ion in the membrane, concentration of this specific ion on both sides of the membrane- The schematic drawing of ungated K+ (passive) open, voltage gated Na+ channel closed, voltage-gated K+ channel open, and the 2K+ (entering) and 3Na+ (exiting) through Na+/K+ pump is active  hyperpolarization - Signal transmission from one neuron to the next requires the presense of a synapse.- Inputs received by a post-synaptic neuronal membrane can be both excitatory and inhibitory AND need to be integrated in both time and space.- A nerve impulse spreads along a myelinated motor neuron that belongs to a neuronal network in the following order: dendrites  axon hillock  axon  axon terminal- Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter (All) inhibiting cardiac muscle contraction, inducing skeletal muscle contraction, stimulating neurons in the brain, and released in the synaptic cleft - Skeletal muscles are also called striated muscles.Casperian strip:- Impermeable layer of suberin located in the root endodermal cells wall preventing compounds from entering the xylem via apoplastic transportPlamodesmata:- Membrane channels connecting two plant cell cytoplasms and involved in symplastic transport in plant rootsCortex:- Root tissue made of parenchyma cells surrounded on the outside by the epidermis and on the inside by the endodermisStomata:- Structure through which transpiration water loss occursCell wall:- Structure made from cellulose present on the outside of plant cell membrane that provides structural support and restricts the extent to which plant cells can swellPhotoperiodism:- Physiological reaction of an organism to the length of day or nightPhotomorphogenesis:- Light-mediated changes in plant growth and developmentTropism:- Directional growth response to an environmental stimulusNastic Movement:- Non-directional response of a plant stimuliNutation:- Swaying or rotating motion resulting from uneven growth of different side of plant organResting potential (-70)  threshold potential (-50)  depolarization (+25)  repolarization (-10)  hyperpolarization (-80)  hyperpolarization (-90)  resting potential (-70)- x-axis = time (msec)- y-axis = membrane potential (mV)Myelin  substance that wraps around the outside portion of axons in intermode regions- Function: myelin sheath increases the speed in which a signal travels the axon and acts as a protective layer around the axon of a neuronMultiple Sclerosis (MS)  autoimmune disease with no cure is associated with progressive deterioration of this

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UD BISC 207 - Lecture notes

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