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KU BIOL 150 - Mastering biology metabolism

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Mastering biology metabolism1. which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones?a. Dehydrationb. Anabolism c. Catabolismd. Metabolisme. Catalysis2. Which of the following is a statement of the 1st law of thermodynamics?a. Energy can not be transferred or transformed b. The entropy of the universe is constantc. The entropy of the universe is decreasingd. Energy can not be created or destroyede. Kinetic energy is stored energy that results from the specific arrangement of matter3. For living organisms which of the following is an important consequence of the first law of thermodynamics?a. The energy content of an organism is constantb. The organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy for life from its environmentc. Life does not obey the 1st law of thermodynamicsd. The entropy of an organism decreases with time as the organism grows in complexity e. Organisms grow by converting energy into organic matter.4. Which of the following statements is representative of the 2nd law of thermodynamics?a. Concervation of energy from one form to another is always accompanied by some gain of free energy b. Without an input of energy, organisms would tend toward decreasing energy c. Heat represents a form of energy that can be used by most organisms to do workd. Every energy transformation by a cell decreases the entropy of the universee. Cells require continuous input of energy to maintain their high level of organization5. Which of the following is an example of potential energy?a. The flight of an insect foraging for foodb. Light flashes emitted by a firefly c. Water rushing over Niagara fallsd. A molecule of glucosee. The muscle contractions of a person mowing grass6. Rank the molecules from highest to lowest energy content a. ATPb. ADPc. Molecule with one phosphated. adenosine7. general structure of atpa. the ----- is the 3rd phosphate group attached to the beta phosphate farthest from the ribose sugar where it is most likely to participate in energy releasing reactionsb. the ---- is the phosphate group closest to the ribose sugarc. the ----- is the scaffold that provides the backbone for the entire ATP moleculed. the ---- is the phosphate group attached to the alpha phosphatee. the ---- is the nitrogenous base attached to the ribose sugar8. Rate vs substrate concentration for an enzyme grapha. Which region does the reaction rate remain constant?b. In which region is the enzyme saturated with substrate?9. Consider a situation in which the enzyme is operating at optimum temperature and pH and has been saturated with substrate. What is your best option for increasing the rate of the reaction?a. Increase the pHb. Increase the temperaturec. Increase the enzyme concentrationd. Increase the substrate concentration10.If you have a severe fever, what grave consequences may occur if the fever is not controlled?a. The removal of amine groups from your proteinsb. Destruction of your enzymes primary structure c. Removal of the aa in active sites of your enzymesd. Binding of your enzymes to inappropriate substrates e. Change in the tertiary structure of your enzymes11.Temp and pH charts…which temperature and pH profile curves on the graph were most likely generated from analysis of an enzyme from a human stomacha. 1 and 4b. 2 and 5c. 1 and 5d. 2 and 4 e. 3 and 4 12.Protein kinases are enzymes that catalyze phosphorylation of target proteins at specific sites, whereas protein phosphotases catalyze the removal of phosphates from phosphorylated proteins. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation can function as an on/off switch for a proteins activity most likely througha. The change in a proteins charge leading to clevageb. The excision of one or more peptidesc. A change in optimal pH at which the reaction will occur d. A change in the optimal temperature at which a reaction will occur e. The change in a proteins charge leading to a conformational change13.Most cells can not harness heat to perform work because a. Temperature is usually uniform throughout the cellb. Cells do not have much heat they are relatively coolc. Heat must remain constant during workd. Heat can never be used to do worke. Heat is not a form of energy 14.Some bacteria are metabolically active in hot springs becausea. High temperatures make catalysis unnecessary b. They are able to maintain a lower internal temperature c. They use molecules other than proteins or RNAs as their main catalystsd. Their enzymes are completely insensitive to temperature e. Their enzymes have high optimal temperatures15.What is the free energy change (G) of the hydrolysis of ATP to ADPa. The free energy change of the hydrolysis of atp is constant and -7.3 kcal/moleb. The free energy change of ATP hydrolysis may vary considerable with variations in pH temp, atmospheric pressure and concentrations of reactants and productsc. The free energy change of the hydrolysis of ATP -7.3 kcal/mole but it varies from species to species16.Cellular respiration diagram label each part of the diagram17.When a molecule of NAD+gains a hydrogen atom the molecule becomesa. Dehydrogenatedb. Oxidized c. Redoxed d. Reducede. hydrolyzed18.When a compound loses- donates- electrons that compound becomes----- such a compound is often referred to as an electron donor.19.When a compound gains-accepts- electrons that compound becomes---- such a compound is often referred to as an electron acceptor 20.In glycolysis the carbon containing compound that functions as the electron donor is-----21.Once the electron donor in glycolysis gives up its electrons, it is oxidized to a compound called----22.-----is the compound that functions as the electron acceptor in glycolysis23.The reduced form of the electron acceptor in glycolysis is-----24.Among the products of glycolysis, which compounds contain energy that can be used by other biological reactionsa. CO2 only b. ATP only c. Pyruvate and ATP only d. O2 only e. NADH only f. ATP and NADH only g. Pyruvate ATP and NADH25.Draw out citric acid cycle 26.What compounds are used in glycolysis – net input- net output or neithera. Glucose ADP NAD+ Pyruvate NADH ATP CO2 coenzyme A acetyl CoA O227.What are the inputs and outputs of the citric acid cycle28.What are the inputs and outputs of oxidative phosphorylation29.What are the locations of the following processesa. Glycolysisb. Acetyl coA formationc. Citric Acid cyle d. Oxidative phosphorylation30.In mitochondrial electron

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