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Global Warming Global Warming Agreements Average temperature near the surface of the Earth has increased by about 1 degree C 1 8 degrees F in the last 100 years The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased significantly since the industrial revolution Greenhouse Effect carbon dioxide traps heat in the atmosphere which consequently warms the earth o When CO2 increases temperature increases Scientists are still trying to find the link between the two ARE THEY ACTUALLY CONNECTED 90 yes IPCC Greenhouse Gases carbon dioxide water vapor methane nitrous oxide and ozone Total T Increase FACTS 1850 1899 0 76 degrees C 1 37 degrees F 2001 2005 0 76 degrees C 1 37 degrees F Kyoto Treaty February 16 2005 Everyone agreed to reduce their use of greenhouse gases U S refused to ratify the treaty o U S and Canada reject the treaty Kyoto Protocol Agreements o 38 countries agreed to reduce use of fossil fuels average reduction 5 o U S 7 reduction o EU 8 reduction o Japan 6 reduction Kyoto Protocol Actualities o U S pulled out of agreement Ice Core and CO2 You can release CO2 levels from ice cores o The newer ice cores have more the older ones have less Consequences of Global Warming Severe storms and hurricanes Severe droughts and heat waves Major flooding of coastal cities Mathematical Model position of falling object Y 5t 2 Climate Change The Earth s Atmosphere Atmosphere varies from time to time and place to place o 78 Nitrogen o 21 Oxygen o 0 93 Argon o 0 04 Carbon Dioxide Atmospheric Pressure the weight of the air above a given surface 4 Layers of Atmosphere o Troposphere the bottom layer where temperature decreases with height this is where weather occurs o Stratosphere the next layer where temperature remains constant for 20 km but then increases until top of stratosphere at 50 km high o Mesosphere the next layer where temperature decreases with height until top of mesosphere at 80 km o Thermosphere the next layer that has no defined limit where temperature increases with height to about 1 000 degrees C If an astronaut sticks his arm into the thermosphere s 1 000 degree C temperature he will not feel the heat because there is no pressure PSI pounds per square inch 14 lb in 2 atmospheric pressure at sea level 5 6 km high is about half the atmospheric pressure than it is at sea level As we go higher in the atmosphere there is LESS air above us and LESS pressure Light glass prism Mid 1600s Isaac Newton experimented with passing white light through a o White light is composed of all the colors of the rainbow combined Isaac Newton s Theory of Light light is a stream of particles Christian Huygens Theory of Light light is a wave 1789 experiment light behaves like a wave o Thomas Young in1789 he passed a beam of light through a two slit structured wall and noticed that it interfered with the other light to create high points and low points which is constructive interference and deconstructive interference THUS light is a wave Quantum Theory of Light early 1900s experiment showed that both Newton and Huygens were right that light is both a wave and a particle o If light passes through a one slit structured wall it acts like a particle o If light passes through a two slit structured wall it acts like a wave If light is a wave WHAT is oscillating o Luminiferous aether is oscillating Michelson Morley Experiment of 1887 demonstrated that aether does not exist because speed of light is the same speed in all directions thus light travels in a vacuum Wave Properties of Light o James Clerk Maxwell light is an electromagnetic wave with a particular range of wavelength Electromagnetic Waves Two axis x and y o X Axis electric waves o Y Axis magnetic waves Light moves at 186 000 miles per second 300 meters in 1 millionth of a second What we KNOW vs DON T KNOW about Global Warming Scientists have confirmed that the average temperature of the Earth s surface has increased by roughly 1 degree C Also the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which directly correlates with temperature has dangerously increased since the Industrial Revolution due to the greenhouse effect We also know that the U S accounts for 25 of global carbon emissions despite only being 5 of the world s population However not only are there wide variations in future temperature predictions but there is also confusion about what the effects of global warming will be and when will they occur Venus and Earth Surface temperature of Venus 900 degrees F If the earth were to move in the same orbit as Venus the temperature of earth would rise to about the boiling point of water 212 degrees F Moment of Inertia of Venus AND Earth 0 33 Venus atmospheric pressure is 90 times higher than Earth s Radar mapping of the surface of Venus used to find volcanoes surface Precession the tendency for things to both orbit and spin like the motion of a spinning top Causes the North Pole to point to different parts of the sky during a 26 000 year cycle Moment of Inertia measurement of how hard it is to twist an object o The more mass an object has concentrated at its center the easier it is to twist such object o Precession allows the Earth s moment of inertia to be calculated Carbon Dioxide on both Earth and Venus comes from outgassing during volcanic eruptions Photosynthesis Plants use carbon dioxide and water to produce organic matter and oxygen When the carbon is dissolved in water it creates shells ex sea shells

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BC EESC 1167 - Global Warming

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