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Global WarmingGlobal Warming Agreements- Average temperature near the surface of the Earth has increased by about 1 degreeC (1.8 degrees F) in the last 100 years.- The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased significantly since the industrial revolution- Greenhouse Effect: carbon dioxide traps heat in the atmosphere, which consequently warms the eartho When CO2 increases, temperature increases Scientists are still trying to find the link between the two… ARE THEY ACTUALLY CONNECTED: >90% yes  IPCCGreenhouse Gases  carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozoneTotal T Increase  FACTS- 1850-1899: 0.76 degrees C (1.37 degrees F)- 2001-2005: 0.76 degrees C (1.37 degrees F)Kyoto Treaty: February 16, 2005- Everyone agreed to reduce their use of greenhouse gases- U.S. refused to ratify the treatyo U.S. and Canada reject the treaty- Kyoto Protocol Agreementso 38 countries agreed to reduce use of fossil fuels (average reduction  5%)o U.S.  7% reductiono EU  8% reductiono Japan  6% reduction- Kyoto Protocol Actualitieso U.S. pulled out of agreementIce Core and CO2- You can release CO2 levels from ice coreso The newer ice cores have more, the older ones have lessConsequences of Global Warming- Severe storms and hurricanes- Severe droughts and heat waves- Major flooding of coastal citiesMathematical Model  position of falling object- Y = 5t^2Climate Change: The Earth’s Atmosphere- Atmosphere varies from time to time and place to placeo 78% - Nitrogeno 21% - Oxygeno 0.93% - Argono 0.04% - Carbon Dioxide- Atmospheric Pressure = the weight of the air above a given surface- 4 Layers of Atmosphereo Troposphere: the bottom layer where temperature decreases with height; this is where weather occurso Stratosphere: the next layer where temperature remains constant for 20 km, but then increases until top of stratosphere at 50 km higho Mesosphere: the next layer where temperature decreases with height until top of mesosphere at 80 kmo Thermosphere: the next layer that has no defined limit where temperatureincreases with height to about 1,000 degrees C If an astronaut sticks his arm into the thermosphere’s 1,000 degree C temperature, he will not “feel” the heat because there is no pressurePSI = “pounds per square inch”14 lb/in^2 = atmospheric pressure at sea level5.6 km high is about half the atmospheric pressure than it is at sea levelAs we go higher in the atmosphere, there is LESS air above us and LESS pressureLight- Mid 1600s  Isaac Newton experimented with passing white light through a glass prismo White light is composed of all the colors of the rainbow combined- Isaac Newton’s Theory of Light = light is a stream of particles- Christian Huygens’ Theory of Light = light is a wave- 1789 experiment  light behaves like a waveo Thomas Young (in1789): he passed a beam of light through a two-slit structured wall and noticed that it interfered with the other light to create high points and low points—which is constructive interference and deconstructive interference THUS, light is a wave- Quantum Theory of Light: early 1900s experiment showed that` both Newton and Huygens were right that light is both a wave and a particleo If light passes through a one-slit structured wall, it acts like a particleo If light passes through a two-slit structured wall, it acts like a wave- If light is a wave, WHAT is oscillating?o “Luminiferous aether” is oscillating Michelson-Morley Experiment of 1887 demonstrated that aether does not exist because speed of light is the same speed in all directions, thus  light travels in a vacuum- Wave Properties of Lighto James Clerk Maxwell  light is an electromagnetic wave, with a particular range of wavelengthElectromagnetic Waves- Two axis (x and y)o X Axis = electric waveso Y Axis = magnetic waves- Light moves at 186,000 miles per second (300 meters in 1 millionth of a second)What we KNOW vs. DON’T KNOW about Global Warming:Scientists have confirmed that the average temperature of the Earth’s surface has increased by roughly 1 degree C. Also, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere—which directly correlates with temperature—has dangerously increased since the Industrial Revolution, due to the “greenhouse effect.” We also know that the U.S. accounts for 25% of global carbon emissions despite only being 5% of the world’s population. However, not only are there wide variations in future temperature predictions,but there is also confusion about what the effects of global warming will be and when will they occur.Venus and EarthSurface temperature of Venus = 900 degrees FIf the earth were to move in the same orbit as Venus, the temperature of earth would rise to about the boiling point of water (212 degrees F)Moment of Inertia of Venus AND Earth = 0.33Venus’ atmospheric pressure is 90 times higher than Earth’sRadar mapping of the surface of Venus  used to find volcanoes/surfacePrecession = the tendency for things to both orbit and spin (like the motion of a spinning top)- Causes the North Pole to point to different parts of the sky during a 26,000 year cycle- Moment of Inertia = measurement of how hard it is to twist an objecto The more mass an object has concentrated at its center, the easier it is to twist such objecto Precession allows the Earth’s moment of inertia to be calculatedCarbon Dioxide on both Earth and Venus comes from “outgassing” during volcanic eruptionsPhotosynthesis:- Plants use carbon dioxide and water to produce organic matter and oxygen- When the carbon is dissolved in water, it creates shells (ex. sea

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BC EESC 1167 - Global Warming

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