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Chapter 13 Expressed Powers specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress Article I Section 8 and to the president Article II Delegated Powers constitutional powers that are assigned to one governmental agency but that are exercised by another agency with the express permission of the first Inherent Powers powers claimed by a president that are not expressed in the Constitution but are inferred from it Commander In Chief the role of the president as commander of the national military and the state National Guard units when called into service War Powers Resolution a resolution of Congress that the president can send troops into action abroad only by authorization of Congress or if American troops are already under attack or serious threat Executive Agreement an agreement made between the president and another country that has the force of a treaty but does not require the Senate s advice and consent Veto the president s constitutional power to turn down acts of Congress A presidential veto may be overridden by a two thirds vote of each house of Congress Pocket Veto a presidential veto that is automatically triggered if the president does not act on a given piece of legislation passed during the final 10 days of a legislative session Legislative Initiative the president s inherent power to bring a legislative agenda before Congress Executive Order a rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect and formal status of legislation Cabinet the secretaries or chief administrators of the major departments of the federal government Cabinet secretaries are appointed by the president with the consent of the Senate National Security Council NSC a presidential foreign policy advisory council composed of the president the vice president the secretary of state the secretary of defense and other officials invited by the president White House staff analysts and advisers to the president each of whom is often given the title special assistant Kitchen Cabinet an informal group of advisers to whom the president turns for counsel and guidance Members of the official Cabinet may or may not also be members of the Kitchen Cabinet Executive Office of the President EOP the permanent agencies that perform defined management tasks for the president Created in 1939 the EOP includes the OMB the CEA the NSC and other agencies Signing Statements announcements made by the president when signing bills into law often presenting the president s interpretation of the law The presidential power to make rules and procedures for the executive branch which have the effect and formal status of legislation is called executive order Presidents George H W Bush and Bill Clinton negotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA Instead of treating that agreement like a treaty Clinton submitted it for a simple majority vote of Congress What President Clinton did was an executive congressional agreement According to the textbook one reason that Congress has been unable to check the growth of presidential power is that Congress has a significant collective action problem The 2002 congressional resolution on the use of force against Iraq is notable because it gave the president complete discretion to determine whether when and how to attack By the end of his second term in office President George W Bush had issued about executive orders 300 If a president wished to make foreign policy without having to get the two thirds vote in the Senate needed to ratify a treaty he or she most likely would make an executive agreement with the head of a foreign nation Some presidents have attached to bills they are approving these attachments may include instructions for enforcement and the president s interpretation of the legislation signing statements Generally speaking popular support for a president declines over time President George W Bush refused to turn over to Congress records of Vice President Cheney s secret energy task force meetings He did so on the basis of executive privilege Presidents have used to withhold information on executive branch deliberations from other branches of government executive privilege Which branch of government has the constitutional power to declare war Congress According to the authors the decline in popular participation in government and voting has increased the power of the president In 1973 Congress passed the War Powers Act which attempted to limit the president s use of troops in military action without congressional approval The president s domestic military power includes the power to send federal troops into a state or city if the president believes sending troops necessary to respond to an emergency or enforce a judicial order Historically first spouses have served what role ceremonial functions The powers of the presidency are outlined in of the U S Constitution Article II The textbook authors argue that today every president is strong What do the authors mean by this Modern presidents have more institutional resources than presidents before them If a president claims that his or her election victory amounts to an order from the American people to enact new environmental policy he or she is claiming a mandate Which amendment provides for the vice president to assume the presidency in the event of the chief executive s death or incapacity and sets forth the procedures that would be followed the Twenty fifth Amendment As a tool for achieving political goals presidents have found party members to be unreliable The most important and largest agency in the Executive Office of the President is the Office of Management and Budget When Congress passes sweeping legislation it often delegates significant power to the executive branch which gives the president a great deal of discretion in the way the law is implemented The first president to effectively use public appeals such as fireside chats and speaking tours was Franklin Roosevelt The practice of allowing the party s congressional delegates to nominate presidential candidates is known as the caucus The public reaction to presidential actions in foreign policy and international crises is usually supportive for a short time Presidential high level political appointments are an institutional resource of presidential power What did the framers mean to accomplish by the indirect election of the president to make the president responsible to state and national legislatures The was established by law in 1947 and is

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UNT PSCI 1040 - Chapter 13

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