KSU PHIL 11001 - ETHICS AND SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY STUDY QUESTIONS

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Introduction to PhilosophyRyanETHICS AND SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY STUDY QUESTIONS1. What is the ultimate “good” in Kant’s philosophy? - GOOD WILL if you have it it’s the one thing that can always be morally justified & good- Universal & can apply to every culture How does he prove this? *2 WAYS to explain if action is in Good Will, good intention / motive- Informal Guide- “Is my/this action done out of the sense of DUTY to the Good Will?”- If answer yes: Good Will √- “DUTY” – Deontology = duty based - Scenario EX. …end of the month/paycheck & you’re outside of a restaurant with your last bit of money & about to get a meal and along comes a homeless woman – what do you do?- * giving people are happier people1. Give them the money & you did it because you like it – praiseworthy but not morally good2. Give her money because you figured it was the right thing to do, not because you wanted to feel good … result is that you do not feel good though. - Liking is unintended = morally good!3. NO liking in doing it = morally good!- Formal Guide = must be apriori & synthetic -Categorical Imperative (see #2)Demonstrating how consequentialism can’t be used to determine what is moral because - Good consequences can come from good intentions- Bad can also come from good intentions - Ex. Cleaning mom’s house for mother’s day & accidentally breaking china.- Was not intentional & was with good intentions and accident still happened - Pure Reason: synthetic (from experience), understanding&- Practical Reason: common sense & scientific = learning- 2 Conditions: Apriori/before experience (necessary laws of morality) + synthetic (particular & practical)Why are some acts that produce good consequences only “praiseworthy” for Kant, and not truly morally good?- Doing things because you think that they’re good but your intentions are actually for yourself & not for others or just coincidental that good came out of it. - When you’re doing good things in your own self-interest but not because you want todo them- EX. - Walking down the street & bend down to tie your shoe and a purse snatcher runs by and when you stand up, you knock him over & stop him. It was an accident but a good thing happened. It was not morally correct because it was unintentional & you didn’t mean to.- Vegetarianism: sense of duty & ethics good and only praiseworthy because you’re saving animals & standing up for animal cruelty, etc. but not if you’re only doing it for your own health.2. State the “categorical imperative” in Kant’s philosophy. - From the Formal Guide = (must also be apriori & synthetic)- Categorical Imperative: “absolute imperative command” & “necessary personal command”- meaning…for any act: before you take any action in a situation, you must ask yourself:- what would happen?- Should this act become Universal Law? (would it be okay for this act to be repeated by everyone?)- 3 Possible outcomes…..What are the three possible outcomes of testing a maxim by the categorical imperative? 1. no logical contradiction >>> morally GOOD2. generates logical contradiction >>> morally BAD3. no logical contradiction- but clearly violates the ‘’no good’’ spirit of the Good WillWhat is the “hypothetical imperative,” and what does Kant think about it.- Hypothetical Imperative: “if I do act X, what consequence Y will follow?”- Kant has 2 objections… 1. The categorical imperative can be manipulated to justify almost any act EX. little white lie to avoid hurting someone’s feelings (Lies are considered NOT morally good)2. The categorical imperative appeals to a hypothetical? A. “What would happen IF this were to become a universal law?”B. Impersonal = “IF” …each and every individual is considered equal when it comes to determining morality What, for Kant, is the value of a person, and how does this lead to the “practical imperative?” - The value of a person isn’t determined by $$$.“I am a being of infinite worth” = not valued by money or physical things- Everyone else is of infinite worth as well -$ means to (life-infinite worth) end - ….leads to Practical Imperative- treat all rational beings, including yourself, as ends rather than means-The Golden Rule: treat others as you would like to be treated / love thy neighbor as thyself3. What does Aristotle mean when he claims the good is the progression from potentiality to actuality? - He means that the same as is beliefs of FORM + MATTER, it translates to Naturalismbecause Forms as Potentiality & Matter is actuality - FORM + MATTERpotentiality >>> actuality Name the four forms of causation involved in this process, and explain the contribution of each. 1. Material: “stuff”, physical presence of matter (ex. clay)2. Efficient: mechanical action on matter/material, “push & pull” (ex. shaping that ball of clay, force exerted by hands)3. Formal: physical shape that emerges as the efficient cause works (ex. vase-shape)4. Final: first & last cause ( alpha & omega); the idea/definition/concept of a thing (ex. ideaof what the vase will look like) 4. What is Aristotle’s definition of happiness? Happiness (nature of human good) = “an activity of the soul, in accordance with virtue, in a complete life”What does he mean that happiness can only be realized “in a complete life?” - Contemplative life >>> life of philosopher5. Identify and explain the three functions of Aristotle’s theory of the soul. Then use this sketch to show how excellence in reasoning, scientific knowledge and common sense, and moral excellence help the soul fulfill its potential. Practical Reasoning- To fulfill common sense & scientific knowledge (learning) = starts in perceptive then goes to rational - To achieve ethics & morality= start in perceptive, then goes into rational, then perceptiveTheoretical Reason-Metaphysics & logical math = learning *happiness is not a state of mind but a giant construction process…takes years & years developing skills/armor to protect yourself from bad and to have your best shot @ a full & happylife. 6. Why does Aristotle disagree with Plato’s view that anyone who knows the good will strive to do what is good? - All evil doing is a result from ignorance – people KNOW what is Good & choose to do evilWhat, according to Aristotle, is Plato overlooking? - He is sure that ethics, learning right vs. wrong habits & conceptually putting it back R ati on a l - a b


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KSU PHIL 11001 - ETHICS AND SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY STUDY QUESTIONS

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