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Jaymie TicknorPolitical Science 1050 Sect. 00229 April and 1 May 2014Lecture #10Chapter #20 : Foreign Policy :Foreign Policy: conduct of relations among nation-states; the most important foreign policy issues involve war and peace; it also involves economic trade among nations and other types of interactionsNeed for Fast Action: differences between foreign and domestic policies: foreign policy decisions often require rapid, decisive action; presidents are given a lot of discretion in how and whether they choose to deploy troops; sometimes done without the approval of CongressVoters Focus on Presidents: voters expect the president to act decisively in areas of foreign affairs; as commander-and-chief, president has authority to deploy troops;support the president in crisis situations: “Rally ‘round the flag” effect: tendency for the public to back presidents in moments of crisis; if conflicts drag on, public support may fadeCongress Retains the Power to Declare War: U.S. Constitution grants Congress sole authority to declare war; tends to take a more passive role in foreign affairs; after Vietnam, Congress has played a more assertive foreign policy role (president did more than necessary in getting more involved with Vietnam)The War Powers Act: 1973 congressional resolution requiring the president to notify Congress formally upon deploying U.S. troopsPresident must notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops; troops must be withdrawn unless Congress approves the presidential decision within 60 days; if not within 60 days, then troops must be withdrawn within 30 daysMost presidents have ignored the resolution (argued to be unconstitutional)Congress Confirms Nominees for Foreign Policy Positions: Advise and consent: presidential nominees must be confirmed by SenateConfirmation hearings: often partisan in natureSenate Committee on Foreign RelationsAlthough rare, nominations have been rejectedCongress Provides Advice and Consent on International Treaties: Treaties: formal agreements between nations; Senate has constitutional power to confirm treaties2010 Nuclear Arms Reduction Pact with Russia: Partisan division over treaty; passed, but only with 13 RepublicansPresidents and Executive Agreements: Executive Agreements: informal agreements between nations; does not require congressional approval; still subject to funding controlsNorth American Free Trade Agreement, 1994: trade agreement between U.S.,Canada, and Mexico; eliminate barriers in trading and investment (losing jobs)Congress Oversees Foreign Policy Bureaucracies: both houses can call for investigations and hearings; hearings create public forum on foreign policy; Iraq War hearings and Benghazi hearingsThe National Security Council Advises the President: The National Security Council: founded in 1947; gathers security-related information for president; current national security advisor is Susan Rice; can be placed without congressional approvalNSC Power: foremost advisory body to presidentNational Security Advisor: advises president on issues of foreign policy; Susan RiceThe State Department: the agency responsible for U.S diplomatic relationsSecretary of State: president’s foreign policy adviser and head of the Dept. of State; currently John KerryAmbassadors: head of a diplomatic delegation to a major foreign countryForeign Service Officers: diplomats who staff U.S embassies and consulatesEmbassy: structure that houses ambassadors and their diplomatic aides in the capital cities of foreign countriesThe Defense Department: cabinet department responsible for managing the U.S. Armed forcesSecretary of Defense: president’s chief civilian adviser on defense matters; currently Chuck HagelJoin Chiefs of Staff: heads of all the military services; coordinates military actions between each branch of the armed forcesCentral Intelligence Agency: agency is responsible for gathering and analyzing information about the political and military activities of other nationsOccasionally, C.I.A. has conducted covert-or secret-military operations; typically has been unsuccessful; Bay of Pigs (Cuba)The Cold War and Post-Cold War World: Cold War view: divided into two centers of power: U.S. and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies; period of political and economic competition as well as military tensionContainment Policy: U.S. policy that attempted to stop the spread of communismViews on Nation-building: Nation-building: interventions designed to enhance democratic practices in other countriesTwo Schools of Thought: Realism: belief that U.S. foreign policy best protests democracy when it safeguards its own economic and military strengthIdealism: belief that U.S foreign policy should be guided primarily by democraticprinciplesSometimes realist and idealist objectives are

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UNT PSCI 1050 - Lecture #10

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