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Unit 3 Practice Test1. The two classes of sex hormones are:(One or more answer choices may be selected)a. Androgensb. Bucagensc. Likogensd. Estrogens2. The primary ‘female’ sex hormone is estradiol.a. Trueb. False3. __________ causes primitive sex organs to develop into testes.a. Wolffian Ductsb. SRYc. Müllerian ductsd. TRUS4. In early prenatal development, mammalian fetuses contain both __________ and __________ before differentiating into a specific sex.a. Wolffian Ductsb. SRYc. Müllerian ductsd. TRUS 5. The __________ chromosome determines which sexual organs will developa. 22nd b. Xc. Yd. 18th 6. Estrogens cause the Wolffian Ducts to develop into the Seminal Vesicles and the Vas Deferens. a. Trueb. False7. The testes produce __________, which causes the degeneration of the Müllerian ducts.a. MIBb. MIRc. MIAd. MIH8. __________ Effects occur before birth, and determine whether the brain will develop male or female characteristics. a. Organizingb. Activating9. __________ Effects occur after birth, and characterize sexual changes, such as those experienced during puberty.a. Organizingb. Activating10. The __________ is larger in males, and contributes to male sexual behaviors.a. Sexually Promorphic Nucleusb. Sexually Quasimorphic Nucleusc. Sexually Dismorphic Nucleusd. Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus11. __________ has/have the ability to decrease pain and anxiety and increase memory, while __________ has/have the ability to increase dendritic branching in the hippocampus.(Some answers may be used more than once or not at all)a. Testosteroneb. Estrogensc. Gliadiold. Norepinephrine12. Please briefly describe the relation between Androgen Insensitivity and how it renders those afflicted with it infertile.13. In regards to structural differences in the brain, homosexual males appear to share similarities most with __________a. Heterosexual menb. Heterosexual womenc. Homosexual womend. No other group of sex paired with sexual orientation. Match the following structural differences in the brain with the correct group of sex paired with sexual orientation.(Some answers may be used more than once or not at all)14. __________ Heterosexual men15. __________ Homosexual men16. __________ Heterosexual women17. __________ Homosexual womena. Right Amygdala has more neuronal connectionsb. Anterior Commissure is largerc. Right Hemisphere is largerd. SCN is larger and more elongatede. Interstitial Nucleus III, residing in the hypothalamus, is largerf. No supported evidence discussed18. The purpose of __________ is to bind to estradiol in order to prevent it from entering cells.a. Alpha-fetoproteinb. Beta-endorphinsc. Cholamined. Histamine19. The __________ theory of emotion states that emotion comes after the biological response. For example, an axe-murderer has presented himself as a danger to you; your sympathetic system isaroused and chooses the “flight” option, to which your body begins to run from the aggressor. Only after you begin running do you develop the emotion of fear.20. Adopted children appear to mirror their biological parents’ violence more than their adopted parents’. a. Trueb. False21. A person is more easily angered when if already made angry within the past twenty minutes.a. Trueb. False22. External activation of the __________, a part of the limbic system, will cause extreme anger in an individual.a. Hypothalamusb. Amygdalac. Ponsd. Nucleus Accumbens23. In regards to the structure in Question #22, the destruction of this structure causes __________a. Rigmortific Oppressionb. Anson’s Disorderc. Lysdatic Oppressiond. Kluver-Bucy Syndrome24. A low __________ turnover is linked with a higher likeliness for one to act on violent impulses, and low levels are linked with depression.a. Serotoninb. Phenylalaninec. Dopamined. GABA25. Neurons synthesize __________ from Tryptophan. This neurotransmitter shares an active transport with __________, which causes competition between the two.a. Serotoninb. Phenylalaninec. Dopamined. GABA26. Anxiolytics and Benzodiazepines reduce anxiety by enhancing the effects of ___________.a. Serotoninb. Phenylalaninec. Dopamined. GABA27. Benzodiazepines are known as __________, which enhance the affinity for neurotransmitters to bind to their receptor sites.a. Antidilatoric Transmittersb. SSRI’sc. Allosteric Modulatorsd. Habituated Transmitters28. __________ is a disorder in which the amygdala wastes away, causing afflicted individuals to have difficulty in recognizing emotions in others, particularly __________. These individuals also cannot recognize __________ within themselves.(Some answers may be used more than once or not at all)a. Urbach-Wietheb. Angerc. PTSDd. Fear29. In the amygdala, __________ is excitatory, whereas __________ is inhibitorya. Glutamateb. GABAc. CCKd. Serotonin30. Beta-endorphins __________ any pain received during the Fight-or-flight response.a. Minimalizesb. Maximizes31. In the Fight-or-flight response, males and females exhibit the same hormonal responses except for __________, which is also released in females.a. Cortisolb. OxytocinPlease indicate which of the following characteristics are attributed to the following axes of the Fight-or-flight response:32. __________ SAM33. __________ HPA(Some answers may be used more than once or not at all)a. Immediate increase in heart rateb. Stimulation of adrenal glandsc. Secretion of Glucocorticoids (Cortisol)d. Involves a neural componente. Releases Beta-endorphins34. If a __________ is stressed, he/she tends to prefer to be alone, whereas if a __________ is stressed, he/she tends to prefer to be with others, specifically people that he/she knows.a. Femaleb. Malec. Otherd. None of the above35. Cortisol levels were found to __________ in males if a known stressor was approaching (e.g. final exams), whereas cortisol levels were found to __________ in females if a known stressor was approaching.a. Increaseb. Decrease36. Any matter that the body designates as ‘non-self’ is known as an __________a. Antibodyb. Probodyc. Antigend. Glycogen37. A fever is specifically caused by a bacteria strain or virus and can disrupt the immune response.a. Trueb. False38. The two components of the immune response are __________, which deals with creating special antibodies explicitly for certain infections, and __________, which helps the immune system respond more quickly to threats that have previously been dealt with in the future.a. Humoral Responseb. CMI Responsec. Memoryd.

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