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Only 25% of population in US consumes recommended 2-2 ½ cups of veggies a day -Of those who do, large portion of veggies are corn and potatoes -Many people have negative conations with veggies-Avoid uncertainty of what they will taste like, think they are not goodDepend on veggies to deliver so many different nutrients and vitamins-Efforts have been made to increase veggie consumption What is the vegetable made up of? What is its composition?-If you know this, you will know what will happen when cooked and heatedWhat kind of nutrients do vegetables provide? Things we can’t find in other foods Certain kinds of soluble fibers-Reduce CVD and type 2 diabetes.. Possibly even some cancersOnly place you will find phytochemicals are fruits and vegetablesLearning all of the things to make sure how to prepare vegetables Fresh, uncooked vegetables have benefits but cooking veggies in a soup means releasing some of those nutrientsCooking increases beta-carotene availabilitySoups are a good way to introduce vegetables to peopleAll the water-soluble vitamins are captured in the soup stock-When people don’t feel very good the first thing you think about is soup People who don’t eat vegetables miss out on a LOT of nutrients Five groups of vegetables Red/orange (need the most of)Dark greenStarchy veggies (recommendations to eat lots of these) “Other” groupLegumes (in two groups – veggies and proteins)Canned vegetables can be high in sodium, off in color, expiredFrozen veggies can be just as good or even better than freshPotatoes and onions make each other spoil Water on greens make them spoil Vegetables are COLORFUL, TEXTURED, FLAVORFULPlants have a particular cell in them and they have cell walls, the main kind of cell found in them is parenchyma-Minerals, things that hold color pigments-When veggies are cooked, the permeability is adjusted (how much change is there between inside and outside of cell) affects the cell-Cell wall is made up of cellulose, which can soften and sometimes change to a point from carbohydrate to another compound. Difference from a crunchy, raw broccoli to a softness-Water hydrates and softens cellulose, but if it has a slightly low pH (lower than 6), this will impair the softening of the cellulose -Broccoli won’t soften while cooking if cooking with tomato sauce or something with a low pHPigment Air trapped in the structure of the plant, when added to water, the air is forced out and the bright green chlorophyll (pigment) will become bright and seen When corn is first picked, its sweet- lots of sugar to it-Its crisp, has protopectin (not turned into pectin) fiberOlder corn, held longer at the store or on the sqtalk, sugar will turn to starch and won’t taste as sweet anymore -It softens, turning into pectin (still kind of juicy)When first buying a peach or plum that’s firm, it’s hard because of protopectin, but as it ripens it becomes soft because of pectin. When it turns brown it goes from pectin to pectin acid where the structure starts to fall apart (mushy).ABCVitamin A from beta caratone (orange veggiesVitamin B- folate (thiamin, niacin) found in vegetables (legumes and green) Vitamin C- spinach, bell peppers, Romain lettuce, many different veggies (especially raw) Ca-FeCalcium and Iron-Found in dark green, leafy veggies and legumes Potassium There are other nutrients Chlorophyll- before the chemical changePheophyton – after the chemical changeGreen- Brussels sprouts can turn from bright green to a darker green because of a chemicalreactionAnthocyanin- blue ish purple when neutral (pH of water), dropping the pH makes it turn red Some pigments are not as susceptible to changing colorChlorophyll and anthocyanin are water soluble, affected by cooking (change in just plain cooking water)Carotenes Colors in vegetable preparation change Pigment in white potatoes- anthozanthin If you cook cauliflower in plain water (neutral pH), it turns a pale creamy yellow color. If you acidify the water, the color will turn bright white. FlavorsChanges in cooking If you take an onion and try to bite into a normal one (raw), its crispy and crunchy and it has a bite- feels hot almostIf you take the onion and cook it for a long time, they will turn sweet (caramelization process)There is a ton of sugar in garlic and onion- cooking it dry will caramelize the sugars Flavors change in cabbage, broccoli and Brussels sprouts- sulphur compounds Some veggies get sweeterDon’t sense the flavor when spinach is raw, but when it is cook it stays longer in the mouth and there is more tasteTextureMake sure they don’t get mushy or if they don’t get cooked enoughWant to cook potatoes until they are completely doneWant beets to be cooked until they are cooked all the way throughDon’t make them mushy (it’s a texture thing)IF you do drop the pH of the dish by adding acid, it takes a long time to soften the cellulose that is in the vegetable, have to cook it longer to soften Leaving broccoli and spinach out in the sun, turns yellow because chlorophyll degrades andother colors show throughWhite green veggies have the pigment lutein in them, which is associated with immune response and participates in things that may reduce cell division (cancer)Strawberries- lycopene Look at charts with colors Mostly what you look for when shopping is the color-Chlorophyll won’t be as bright until it is cooked-Look for presence of mushiness, bacterial growth, something that could cause damage-Look for yellow cast in broccoli that says its been exposed-Don’t want potatoes with too many eyes (been sitting around for a while, been exposed to too much sun)-If potatoes emerge from under the ground, get exposed to sunlight and there is a toxic substance solinan, can tell if its been exposed if there is a green cast to it (bitter and can cause digestive problems) -The green tells you its been exposed (the indicator of a bad potato) -Potatoes should never be exposed to the sun Don’t buy the green potatoes Sometimes in the floret of the broccoli, there’s black pit- AVOID IT Asparagus- check the tips and look in the center (can rot from the center) and if the tips areall dried out-If not using asparagus right away, put the asparagus into a vase with a little water, so the water goes up to the tipBring all of your senses when you purchase vegetables, especially bring your noseTomatoes, potatoes, winter squash, sweet potatoes need to be stored outside in a dry area, just inside the room. Putting

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LSU HUEC 1014 - Notes

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