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Fruit is a ripened ovary of the flower-Grows on vines, trees-Nuts are fruit (walnuts, pecans, almonds)-Different fruits have different requirements Enzymatic browning- when you cut through the fruit, you release enzymes and components that are susceptible of the browning processDon’t want to blanch strawberries because texture would change in an unacceptable manner, leave them partially frozen (ice crystals will keep the structure) What is a fruit?The ripened reproductive body of a seed plantWe don’t call all fruits “fruits”Kiwifruit is like an inside out strawberry Pineapple is several flowers but one fruit Pumpkins are in the same family as a cucumber or a gourd Simple fruits: Citrus fruits- lemon, orange, lime, grapefruit, mandarin, tangerine, kumquatOrange is a good source of folate, potassium, and vitamin C False berry:Bananas are an herb (flesh of the herb) -Multiple flowers and from those flowers come the banana Cranberries grow in a bog, more similar in growth pattern to rice than anything else Blueberries grow on a bush Aggregate:Grow from one flower but have several segments to them Strawberry has seeds on the outside not inside Multiple fruit:Multiple flowers but only one fruit comes forwardStones fruit:Drupe or pomes (p)Apples and pears are considered pome (core with seeds)Stone fruits have a pit in the middle -Nutrient that is most likely to be high in this fruit is beta-carotene (which can be converted to vitamin A)Guava is considered the most nutrient dense fruit that there is Gooseberry are made into a juice or jelly, lots of pectin in themComposition of Fruit: -Glucose and fructose (sometimes they are a disaccharide called sucrose) -Malic acid makes you pucker-Oxalic -Tartaric is acid from grapes (how tartar is made)-Citric acid (comes from a lemon or lime)-Pectin is a soluble fiber, very beneficial to health (diet high in this, reduce risk of CVD)When you first buy a peach-Ripe ones will have pectin in them (juicy)-Hard ones will have protopectin Tannins take part in the unique flavors from fruit Nutrients (that we depend on fruits for) -Vitamin C (destroyed when heated)-Calcium-Folate (destroyed when heated)-Beta carotene (pre-Vitamin A)-Lycopene (red color, phytochemical)-Fiber-Phytochemicals: flavonoids, carotenoids-(High) Potassium: low in sodium Research shows we can balance diet high in sodium with a diet high in potassium to counteract mg of sodiumPreparation of FruitCookingIf you want fruit to hold its shape, you need to think about the things that affect cells In a fruit there is a cell wall (glucose, sucrose, acids, fructose inside cell) If you take cell and put it in a pot with just water, water will flow into the cell and the cell wall will swell and break apart. If you want to make a sauce, want fruit to break up- put fruit into plain water and heat it Add sweetener afterwards If you want blueberries to hold shape and not break apart, put them into water and add some sugar (not a lot of sugar) -If too much sugar is added, water will flow out and blueberry will shrivel up -Need to have the right amount of sugar If you are careful and keep the concentration of water and sugar, the fruit will hold its shapeCutting If you are planning to cut fruit ahead of time (apple, pear, color that will change from oxidative browning) there are several things to do to keep color from changing -Using products like Fruit Fresh (powdered citric acid that contains antioxidant) -Antioxidant will slow down the browning process-Dropping the pH will lower the activity of the enzymes -Squeeze lemon, orange or lime juice on fruit -Say it will just be an hour between cuttings and eating, keep the fruit ice cold (not 40 degrees but on ice) -Ice will retard the enzyme action -Submerge fruit in cold water so oxygen won’t get into fruit because the reaction won’t take place, will also keep crispness of fruit Freezing Cell has a lot of water in it, along with sugars and suchRigid cell wall and freeze water?The cell will freeze and breakIf you freeze strawberry, cell wall break so when thawed they will become mushy and water will flow out If you blanch fruit it will change the textureIf you take strawberries and cook them in a little water WITH SUGAR, you can freeze them beautifully You have to have a little bit of sugar with the fruit when frozen If you don’t do this, they need to be cooked, put in a smoothie or kept a little frozen Apples are hard to freeze- if you cook and add a little bit of sugar they are good to freezeAdd SugarMaceration – will get a beautiful juice that can be frozen The sugar has high concentration on the outside of the cell and draws the water, organic acids, and the pigments out Fresh, dry, canned… Canned fruit (in on juice) and dried fruit is good -Add variety to meal planDried fruit-Don’t need a fridge-You can prepare with a gas stove or grill -Has a long shelf life, if protected they can be in there for years -Prunes, raisins, dried cherries, mango-Concentrated natural sugars so eat them with other foods-May seem expensive but you can pay more for it than regular fruit because of the water difference -High consumption is associated with reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, lots of soluble fiber -5 prunes compared to 1 or 2 plums -70-75 degrees room temp, not exposed too much air (concealed) *can be colder but not hotterWatch out for the added sugar coating on the outside Fruits that we can dry are limited in their nutrient delivery-No vitamin C -If not chewed, it will go through undigested for children Storage of Fresh fruitBerries- raspberries, blackberries, strawberries-Soft, fleshy fruit-Spoil quickly-Will get mold really quickly -Have to be kept dry (if not they will spoil SO fast) -Store them dry in a drawer in the fridge -Some things have to be stored right away in the fridge (apples, citrus fruit, berries) -Some things can be stored at room temp (plums, peaches, apricots, kiwifruit, banana) untiljust ripe-Keep bananas outside until right temp and then they need to be put in the fridge, otherwise it will just keep ripening until it is mushy and gross -Buy them green (all bananas are picked green then stored in grocery store)-Take good care of them as they are ripening -Once they get to exactly how you like them, store them that way in the fridgeMake something like ice cream that are mushed up bananas Gelatin-Make something solid that can melt in your mouth -Satisfying feeling: creaminess, enjoyment You can gel almost any

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LSU HUEC 1014 - Fruit

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