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LEADERSHIPGROUPSMANAGEMENT 3200 FINAL EXAM REVIEW QUESTIONSMOTIVATION1. What are the five needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? (Know what each need is and be able to recognize what need is being satisfied in a given situation)- Physiological o Ex: procreation sex, food, water, shelter, etc.- Safety = security and stabilityo Ex: good life insurance and retirement benefits- Social = belongingness, acceptance, friendship, loveo Ex: wine and cheese party, considerate employees- Esteem = recognitions and respect from other people for a job well doneo Ex: award banquet- Self-actualization = maximizing your potential; being all you can be; knowledge for the sake of knowledgeo Ex: you win the award at the banquet or a big bonus at worko $ can satisfy all of them 2. According to Maslow, what motivates your behavior?- Lowest unsatisfied need in the hierarchy 3. What does Maslow believe about satisfied needs?- Satisfied needs don’t motivate you 4. If a need is frustrated, what will the employee experience, according to Maslow? Can the employee still be motivated if his/her needs are frustrated?- They’ll be stuck (demotivated), can’t go up or down the hierarchy- They can’t be motivated if their needs are frustrated5. What needs are typically unsatisfied in most organizations? Why is this the case? What would help satisfy these needs?- Typically unsatisfied = esteem and self actualization - B/c most jobs are specialized- Enriched job would help satisfy (or craft job)6. What need is the highest level of personal motivation? How many people reach this level? Isit ever fully satisfied or fulfilled?- Highest level of personal motivation = self actualization- Not many reach this level- Never fully satisfied (once you satisfy this need it is temporary, then you want more)7. What is a peak experience?- Peak experience = momentary self actualization 8. What does the research say about Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?- Found 2-3 needs motivate behavior, rather than the 5 propose by Maslow- Everyone doesn’t climb the hierarchy in the same progression (not same value system or motivation)- Satisfied needs can still motivate an employee’s behavior9. What is a cafeteria style benefits plan?10. How would you apply Maslow’s theory of motivation if you were a manager?- Maslow’s theory of motivationo Different strokes for different folkso What motivates one does not always motivate anothero What motivates an individual today may not motivate them tomorrow 1- Have to be flexible and tailor the motivation to the individual11. What are the three needs in ERG theory that can motivate behavior?- E xistence (2)o Physiologicalo Safety - R elatedness (2)o Social o Esteem - I mportance of growth (1)o Self-actualization12. How do the three needs in ERG theory match up to the five needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?- See above13. What does Alderfer’s ERG theory say about a satisfied need?- Satisfied needs can still motivate14. What is the frustration-regression principle in ERG theory? What does it say about need frustration?- If existence needs are satisfied, then you move on to relatedness needs, but you can always regress back to existence needso Ex: get a new job, but hate your new employees and boss, but you can always get a raise – not stuck!- If a need is frustrated you can still be motivated 15. What does Herzberg say is the opposite of job satisfaction? The opposite of job dissatisfaction?- Job satisfaction  No job satisfaction- Job dissatisfaction  No job dissatisfaction 16. What is a motivator factor and what is it related to in 2-factor theory? (be able to recognize what are motivators on the job). Motivators are like what needs in Maslow’s hierarchy?- Factors that affect job satisfaction (internal factors = tasks you do and how they make you feel):o Interesting, challengingo Achievemento Recognitiono Advancemento Sense of fulfillment- Job enrichment creates job satisfaction- Specialized jobs create no job satisfaction- 2 factor theory = factors that cause an employee to be satisfied were different from the ones that caused them to be dissatisfied- Like Maslow’s needs of esteem and self-actualization17. What is a hygiene factor and what is it related to in 2-factor theory? (be able to recognize what are hygiene’s on the job). Hygiene’s are like what needs in Maslow’s hierarchy? - Factors that prevent bad things from happening (external factors):o Payo Benefitso Co-workerso Supervisorso Working conditiono Company policy- If good create no job dissatisfaction2- If bad create job dissatisfaction - Cannot be motivated by hygienes!- 2 factor theory : factors that cause an employee to be satisfied were different from the ones that caused them to be dissatisfied- Like Maslow’s needs of safety, social, and physiological18. What does Herzberg advocate as the only way to motivate employees (i.e., make them job satisfied)?- Job enrichment - Assumes everyone is expressively motivation towards work (leaves out instrumental motivation)19. What is the effect of good pay, good supervision, good benefits, etc…on job dissatisfaction? Can hygiene factors motivate people according to Herzberg?- It prevents it, creating no job dissatisfaction - No, true motivation comes from within (internal, not external)20. If I gave you an example of a person holding a certain type of job (e.g., specialized or enriched) and having either good or poor hygienes (e.g., pay, benefits, and supervision), you will be able to tell me what the person is experiencing in terms of job satisfaction or no job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction or no job dissatisfaction).- JS (enriched)  motivators  NJS (specialized)- JDS (bad)  hygiene factors  NJDS (good)- Ex: specialized job that pays poorly = NJS and JDS (worst case scenario)- Ex: enrich job that pays well = JS and NJDS (best case scenario)21. What are the problems with Herzberg’s 2-factor theory?- 1. Based on interview with accountants and engineers (not representative of the entirework force, instrumental motivation was ignored here)o Works for white collar workers, but not for blue collar workers- 2. Way he conducted the interviews led to biased responses (self-serving bias)o Self-serving bias = take credit for out successes and blame others for our failures- 3. It’s a one best way theory of motivation- 4. Some people’s hygiene’s are other people’s motivators22. What is the basic premise behind goal

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