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Study Guide for COMM 245 RadioEconomic structure of Radio: - 1922 WEAF sold 10 minutes of airtime to a real estate agent (established private rather than government ownership of broadcasting system)- BBC set up a public monopoly, fees from listeners but no ads Radio reaction to TV competition in 1947- Radio became a local medium providing local services - Radio had to develop their own content- led to development of different formats (genres) A.M. Radio had to adjust to F.M.’s success- changed to formats such as: - All news- Talk radio- Radio drama- Still some musicMorning drive: time when radio has the highest number of listeners (6am-10am)Radio Format:1. What other local radio stations are airing2. The composition of their potential audiences3. Potential for attracting certain demographic groups of listeners to advertisers (having a viable economic base)4. Ex. Rap, Classic Rock, Urban contemporary MusicThomas Edison- invented the Dictaphone (1877)Emil Berliner- invented sheliac (later vinyl) discs (1888)ASCAP: American Society of Composers, Authors, & Publishers (1914)- Asked for royalties for radio performances- collects % anywhereBMI: Broadcast Music, Inc. (1937)- Purpose was to secure royalty payments for songwriters and musiciansScott Joplin- first to write down music (ragtime)Louis Armstrong- performed Dixieland, form of jazzDuke Ellington- Muddy Waters Battle of the Speeds in 1945- CBS: 33 1/3 revolutions per minute (long-playing records invented by Dr. Peter Goldmark)- RCA (NBC): 45 revolutions per minute (pop singles) Elvis Presley- 1956, “Hound Dog” Cover: remake of a previously recorded song - White person’s cover of a black musician’s song kept black version out of themarket- denied original singer’s their royalties Symbiotic relationship: mutually beneficial PMRC: Parents Music Resource Center4 Corporations that collect almost 90% of recording industry revenues each year- Universal Music: 37%- Sony: 27%- EMI: 10% - Warner Brothers: 20%Recording industry trend is toward consolidation into fewer, larger companies Effect of MTV on music industry in 1982: - Provided a new outlet for musicians - MTV videos played an important role in promoting new work or hip-hop groups A&R: Artist and Repertoire Departments- function as “talent scouts”, responsible for product development, find musicians, and oversee recordingPayola: record companies pay disc jockeys (music directors) cash in exchange for airplay- ILLEGAL Payola 2007 Scandal- FCC fined 4 corporations: Clear Channel (3.5 million), CBS Radio (3 million),Citadel Broadcasting (2 million), and Entercom Comm. (4 million)- All signed consent decree- not admitting guiltGold Record: 5,000 albums or 1 million hit singles soldPlatinum Record: 1 million albums or 2 million hit singles sold Billboard is a major trade magazine Soundscan: Computer system that records the number of CDs bought in record storesRIAA: Recording Industry Association of America- Filed lawsuits against 21,000 people who were sharing large music files over the Internet - 2009- announced that it would not file new lawsuitsDigital Millennium Copyright Act: designed to protect music copyrights (1998)Television Broadcast/CableAffiliate: A local TV station that signs a contract with a network to air that network’s programs on an exclusive basis Network Compensation: network pays affiliates to cart network shows 1934 Communications Act:- Requires broadcaster to serve “in the public interest, convenience, and necessity” How FCC acts as a traffic cop:1. Allocates frequencies over which radio & TV stations may broadcast2. Determines how many kilowatts a station may use to broadcast 3. Determines which AM radio stations are “daytimers”, broadcasting only from sunrise to sunsetHow pilots are pre-tested:- Viewers go in a preview theatre- Real Time Response (RTR) dials- Units of laughter called “Magoo”Market: A contiguous area that can be reached by a broadcast station’s signals Demographics: statistical data relating to the populationPsychographics- study/classification of people according to their attitudes, etcAFTRA: the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists- national labor union representing nearly 80,000 performers, journalists, and other artistsDGA: Directors Guild of America- a national union of film, television, and commercial directors Two major ratings companies:- Arbitron- does ratings for radio- A.C. Nielsen- does ratings for TV98% of U.S. population has at least one TV setUses of A.C. Nielsen Company:- Diaries in medium and small markets- People meters: record the channel the TV is tuned to and view demographics if viewers click the remote (Total of 10,000 households wired in US)- Set-top meters- record the channel the TV is tuned toRating: percentage of homes tuned to a particular channel (used by advertisers to see how many viewers they have bought)Share: percentage of homes tuned to a particular channel compared only with TV sets turned on (used by TV programmers to see competition)HUT: Homes Using TV- percentage of homes that have TV turned on at any given time Problems with Ratings:1. TV set is left on, but no one is watching2. Ratings do not tell how much attention viewers pay to TV3. Nothing is known about those who refuse to become “Nielsen families”4. 33-50% of Nielsen families suffer “button fatigue” (get tired of punching their demographics)5. 10% of all people meters produce faulty data on any given dayNAB: National Association of Broadcasters- trade association that fought for, and won,de-regulation of radio and TV Portable People Meter: joint venture between Nielsen and Arbitron- detects an inaudible code embedded in audio of TV, radio, and streamed programs on the Internet PBS: Public Broadcasting ServiceNPR: National Public RadioSweeps: In addition from using results from peoplemeters in top 55 markets, Nielsen uses data from diaries during sweeps, which occur in Nov., Feb., May, and JulyStripping: if a TV show lasts 5 years and there are 100+ episodes, the producer sells theshow in syndication and local TV stations strip the show (air it 5 times a week at same time) Off-network Syndication: if there are 100+ episodes of a series, after they have aired twice on the network, the producer sells them in syndication Superstation: an independent TV station that uplinks its signal to a communication satellite so that cable viewers anywhere in United States can watch Vertical

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UD COMM 245 - Study Guide

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