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ANT 2200 Final Exam Review Sheet Know the routes to America discussed - Across the barring land bridge from Asia into North America- Along the Coast line from East Asia to America- Traveling from Australia to South America across the Pacific- From Europe to North America along the ice flows of the Arctic, skipping from island to islandOf the three stages of syphilis, this one affects the skeleton (and brain)- Tertiary syphilis From lab 12, these are three ways of estimating age in a skeleton1. Tooth development and eruption2. Epiphyseal fusion3. Degenerative changesBe familiar with the tool assemblages discussed in class and lab and the species/cultures associated with them (Oldwoan, Acheulian, Mousterian)- Oldowan: found in Tanzania approximately 2.5 mya, manufactured with very simple modifications to stone, creating flakes, cores and choppers. These tools were unifaced. Most commonly associated with the Homo habilis. - Acheulian: associated with homo erectus, spread into Europe and Asia, consisted of handaxes, cleavers, and other tools; bifaced (flaked on both sides), much sharper cutting surfaces than the earlier unifaced- Mousterian: created by Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, specifically designed for hunting, animal and plant processing, developed a prepared core or Levallois technique for manufacturing their stone tools. Were able to control size and shape of flake. May reflect increased cognitive abilities in the Neandertals - Clovis: first type of stone tool associated with North America, larger stone spear points This is the study of the impact of culture on health-bioarchaeology The Osteodontokeratic Tool Assemblage was proposed by this anthropologist- Raymond DartThe Slinky Hypothesis states that changes in locomotion were the result of changes to- brain and spine (postcranial anatomy)Bipedalism was definitely established in hominans by this long ago- 4 million years agoThe Laetoli Footprints are associated with this species of hominan- Australopithecus afarensis (Au. Afarensis) The cradle of human evolution appears to be- Africa, specifically East Africa Be able to name a robust Australopithecine- Australopithecus boisei (Au. Boisei) - Au. Robustus Be familiar with the different hypotheses for evolving bipedalism. - Carrying hypothesis: freed arms to carry things such as offspring-Hunting hypothesis: developed bipedalism to be efficient hunters with weapons- Seed and nut gathering: humans are efficient gatherers of seeds and nuts, starting out as squatters and then standing bipedally (in Savannah habitats) - Feeding from bushes: standing on hind limbs allowed for foraging from bushes and low hanging branches of trees- Thermoregulation: upright position reduces exposure to sunlight thus reducing temperature- Visual Surveillance: seeing over scrub grassland habitat will help to avoid predators - Long- Distance Walking: humans needed to travel between forest patches – bipedalism proves an efficient form of locomotion- Male Provisioning: bipedalism developed as a way for males to carry food back to family units. This limited intra-group competition for resources and explains monogamous systems in human population- Phallic Display: males developed upright posture to display genitalia- Aquatic Ape Hypothesis: our ancestors lived near bodies of water and would collect shellfish/other marine resources; bipedalism makes it easier to grab these from the waterInsular dwarfism may have affected this species, leading to Homo floresiensis- Homo erectusNon-Africans share genes with this extinct type of hominan- Neanderthals It is 40,000 years ago. All of these species of hominan are alive - Homo sapiens sapiens - Neanderthals- Denisovans - Homo floresiensis Mitochondrial Eve lived this long ago- 200,000 years agoMany extinct hominans had large brow ridges, also known as these- Supraorbital torus Briefly describe the osteological paradox. Why is it significant for anthropologists who study past populations?- Some people get sick. There are two possible outcomes: a) die because they have a bad immune system or b) survive because their immune system can fight the disease. When you find a skeleton that has no lesions versus a skeleton that has lesions, the ones with no lesions died of the disease while the skeleton with lesions was the healthier one. The skeleton with lesions was able to fight off the disease for the while and this is why they have the lesions. The skeletons without lesions were those with a weak immune system and died quickly from the disease. Compare and contrast the Multiregional and Out of Africa models for the evolution of Homo erectus.- Multiregional: One big migration of H. erectus leaving Africa. They all migrate around the world and reproduce. They become specialized based on where they migrated to, but they never became different species because gene flow was still occurring.- Out of Africa: There are two migration groups. First group of H. erectus leaves Africa and migrates, but dies out. Second population, which stayed behind, then migrates and populates the world as Homo sapiens. There is never any co-evolution. List and briefly explain the explanations that have been put forward for the Venus figurines use.- Religious (Goddess cult)- Education (females)- Pornography List in order the colonization of the continents from earliest to most recent. Africa AsiaAustraliaEuropeNorth America South AmericaPolynesia - Antarctica has never had an indigenous population.- Polynesia contains New

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OSU ANTHROP 2200 - Final Exam Review Sheet

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