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Cultural Archaeology:- What is this?Culture is learned behavior that is transmitted from person to personUnderstand human behavioral characteristics  similarities/differencesSocial function  within and between groups- What does this study?Study present-day societies in non-Western settingsStudy of human societies and their very recent past  covers all aspects of human behavior- How does this differ through time?Link between behavior and environment  how they utilized resources, adapt lifestyle to surroundings and against environmentArchaeology:- What is this?Study past human societies, focusing mostly on their material remainsStudy of material objects – artifacts – from past cultures- What does this study?The processes behind past human behaviors e.g. why people lived where they didThey are the cultural anthropologists of the past – reassemble cultures of the past- How does this differ through time?Perspective on old ways  better understanding of modern onesReconstruct lifestyles of extinct peoplesPatterns of interaction between groupsTrace development of ancient societiesLinguistic Anthropology:- What is this?Language – a set of written or spoken symbols that refer to things other than themselves  transfer of knowledge from one person to then next and from one generation to the next- What does this study?The construction and use of language by human societies- How does this differ through time?StructureEvolution of languageSocial and cultural contexts for language  language impacted by culture contactPhysical Anthropology:- What is this?Human biology is a product of evolutionary historyIndividuals are also the product of their individual life historiesCombined effects of biology and environment (interdependent)- What does this study?Interrelationship between what humans have inherited genetically and cultureStudy of human biological evolution, human biocultural variation, and our primate relatives- How does this differ through time?Helps us understand our own biologyClarifies our relationship to other animalsInfluence of environment on biologyBetter address modern concenrs with human health and physical well-being3 main figures: Hooton, Boas, and HrdlickaBoas (1858-1942)pulled together the various scholarly themes that give the discipline its distinctive identityfirst anthropological expedition  observe the Inuit (Eskimos) living on Baffin Island in the eastern Artic of North America to find out as much on cultural and biological sides of human conditionwanted to research relationships between land and people  “invents” anthropologyHrdlickastarted the professional scientific journal and professional society devoted to the fieldHootontrained most of the first generation of physical anthropologistsWhat makes us human and different from other primates? Be able to list 6 traits and describe them.1. Bipedalismwalking on two feet2. Nonhoning Chewingloss of a large, honing canine tooth to the simple nonhoning canine which we use to process food  honing canine disappeared because acquired ability to make and use tools for processing food3. Complex material culture and tool useused for day-to-day living and survivalMaterial culture – part of culture that is expressed as objects that humans use to manipulate environments e.g. hammer, nails4. Huntingsocial behavior where a group of adult men organize themselves to pursue animals for food5. Speechcommunicates by talkingpresence of human hyoid bone – part of vocal structure that helps produce words6. Dependence on domesticated foodsraise animals and grow plants  reliance on domesticated speciesThe Scientific Method: Steps of scientific method and why they are important for physical anthropology and science.Step 1: Identify a problem based on earlier observationsStep 2: Stating the hypothesisStep 3: Collecting the data (observations)Step 4: Testing your hypothesis – rejection, acceptance, or modification- Physical anthropologists derive knowledge via the scientific method. Scientists formulate and test hypotheses that they hope will lead to theories about the natural world- The method is a systematic technique used to investigate any phenomena with the goal of acquiring new knowledge  once a hypotheses cannot be falsified, becomes a theory- Important because without it, physical anthropologists will never get new discoveriesTheory: A set of hypotheses that have been rigorously tested and validated, leading to their establishment as a generally accepted explanation of specific phenomena.- explanation grounded in a great deal of evidence, “evidentiary record”- e.g. Darwin’s theory about human origins  hypothesis that origin of human bipedalism was linked to shift from life in trees to life on the ground. His theory disproved when it was found that hominids lived in woodlands, not grassland.Law: A theory that becomes absolutely true.- e.g. Newton’s law of gravityCharles Darwin- came up with hypothesis when on voyage, he began to formulate questions about the origins of plants and animals living in the lands he explored- observed physical differences, or variation, between and among members of species when travelling South America- studied finches, birds that live in the Galapagos, a small cluster of islands off the coast of EcuadorNatural Selection: The process by which some organisms, with features that enable them to adapt to the environment, preferentially survive and reproduce, thereby increasing the frequency of those features in the population.Fitness: Average number of offspring produced by parents with a particular genotype compared to the number of offspring produced by parents with another genotype.Reproductive Success: Passing of genes onto the next generation so they can also pass on those genes.Limits of Natural Selection:- traits must be heritable- traits must be in variation- Fitness is a relative measure that changes as the environment changes- traits must affect fitness – reproductive successEvolution: Change in inherited characteristic of biological populations over successive generations.5 Disciplines Darwin used to come up with hypotheses:1. GeologyStudy of the earth, its composition, activity, and history2. PaleontologyStudy of fossilsDetailed past life-forms, many now extinct3. Taxonomy and SystematicsTaxonomy: classification of past and living life-forms, laid foundation for systematicsSystematics: study of biological (taxonomic) relationships over time4.

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OSU ANTHROP 2200 - Cultural Archaeology

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