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Chapter 11Stress any force that pushes a psychological or physical function beyond its range of stabilityproducing a strain within the individualStrainundesirable personal outcomes resulting from the combined stressful experiences ofvarious life domainsDemand-control modelstress is a function of the psychological demands of work and the amountof decision latitude (control) that employees are providedExamples of intrinsic work factorspoor working conditions: low lighting, excessive noise andpoorly designed office spaceRole a set of behaviors expected of a person who occupies a particular position in a groupRole ambiguity a situation that results when role expectations are unclear and employees aretherefore unsure of what is expected of themRole conflict a situation that results when role expectations are inconsistent, as when asupervisor sends employees mixed messages about their roles Role overload employees have too much to doSexual harassment unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal orphysical harassment of a sexual natureQuid pro quo this for that, giving goods in exchange for othersHostile work environment nude pictures, sexual innuendos, inappropriate comments Burnout a condition that occurs when employees become so stressed they experience emotionalexhaustion, depersonalization, sense of reduced personal accomplishmentHow task complexity influences the relationship between stressors and task performance Hardinessfeeling of control in life, committed to family and work goals/values, see unexpectedchange as a challengeLocus of control and reactions to stressCoping efforts that help people manage or reduce stressProblem-focused behaviors or actions targeted toward solving or handling the stress-inducingproblem itselfEmotion-focused cognitive (thought-related) strategies that minimize the emotional effects ofstress-inducing eventsPrimary prevention strategies eliminating stressor from work environmentSecondary prevention strategies involves modifying responses to inevitable demands or stressorsTertiary prevention strategiesfocused on healing negative effects of stressorsEmployee assistance programscounseling provided by an organization to deal with workplacestress, alcohol or drug difficulties, and problems stemming from outside of the jobWork family conflict (WFC) two domains don’t fit well together and results in one role having anegative effect on the otherWork family enrichment attitudes and behaviors are believed to have a positive carryover fromone domain to the other, traditionally called spilloverChapter 12Work group an interdependent collection of individuals who share responsibility for specificoutcomesWork teamthree or more, interdependent and coordinated, must have specified role, commontask goalsFormal group subunits the organization establishesInformal groupdevelop apart from the official structure of the organization and can existindependent of itDescriptive norms tend to do feel or thinkPrescriptive norms should do feel or thinkRoles set of behaviors expected of a person who occupies a particular position in a group ororganizationrole concept describes how people perceive the situational forces acting on themrole differentiation establishes distinct roles for various members of the group or organizationformal specified by the organization and are part of the formal job descriptioninformal arise from group interaction rather than from the formal rules of the organizationTeam cohesion the strength of members motivation to maintain membership in a group and ofthe links developed among membersTuckman’s model of group development FORMING—get to know STORMING--disagreeNORMING—close ties and consesnsus PERFORMING—do real work ADJOURNING—dissatisfaction of close of presentationGersick’s punctuated equilibrium model P1: exploring and some conflict. Midpoint: reevaluatesgoals and directions. P2: ideas into effectSocial loafing reduction in individual effort that occurs when people work in groups instead ofaloneFree riding employees do less but still share equally in rewardSucker effect outcome, which occurs when group members become concerned about holdingback, and reduce own effortsBrainstorming technique in which all members of a group generate potential solutions;effectiveness reduced when “production blocking” apprehensive about voicing ideas, motivatedby how “good they look when generating ideas”Process lossnonmotivational element of a group situation that detracts from groups performanceSteiner’s law of group performanceactual=potential-losses due to faulty processesGroupthink mode of thinking that individuals engage in when the desire to agree becomes sodominant in a cohesive group that it overrides realistic appraisal of alternative courses of actionantecedents of groupthink groups make decisions that are known to be poor, caused bycohesion/biased leadership/high decisional stressmind guardShared mental modelsorganized structures combining the knowledge, beliefs and understandingof two or more individualsProduction employees who produce output (front line)Management coordinate workers to ensure productionService employees who work together to attend to customers needsproject/cross-functional employees who carry out specific projects are dissolved uponcompletion (CF represent various departments)advisory work in parallel to production processesself-managed monitor and control the overall process or product, distribute tasks to teammembers 3 dimensions of work-team effectivenessPerformance, attitudes, withdrawal behaviorsTaskwork task orientedteamwork process orientedAdvantages saves time and money, expanded labor market, more access to expertsdisadvantages of virtual teamstime differences, cultural, technological; lower trust, performance,and job attitudesTeamwork testsituational judgment test in which respondents are provided with hypotheticalteamwork situations and asked to select from multiple solutions Dr. Hamilton’s main resultChapter 13Leadership social process through which an individual intentionally exerts influence over othersto structure their behaviors and relationshipsFrench and Raven’s five bases of power (reward, coercive, legitimate, referent, expert)R=power-ability provide valued resources;


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PSU PSYCH 281 - Chapter 11

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