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Chapter 5- purpose of performance appraisalo systematic review and evaluation of job performanceo Personnel decisions such as who gets promoted fired demoted or laid off; who gets large raise small raise or no raise; etco Developmental such as employees being informed of performance strengths and weaknesses so they can be proud of what they are doingo Documentation of organizational decisions- performance management o a system of individual performance improvement that typically includes  1 objective goal setting  2 continuous coaching and feed back  3 performance appraisal and  4 development planning- results-/behavior-/trait-based performance data o What (objective to subjective) o Results: accomplishmentso Behavior: task basedo Trait: attitudes, initiative, creativity- employee comparative scales (rank-order, paired comparison, forced distribution)o evaluation of rates with respect to how they measure up to or compare with other employees.o Rank-ordering: several employees ranked from best to worsto Paired comparison: comparison of each employee with every other employee. o Forced distribution: “force” a designated proportion of rates into each of five to seven categories. Similar procedure is grading on the normal curve.- pros/cons of rating sources (self, supervisor, peer, subordinate, customer)o Self: Graphic rating scale, always perceive better than others (positive leniency), should not be used for administrative purposeso Supervisor: Ideally have extensive knowledge of job, may not have opportunity to observe (face validity affected if observed frequently) o Peer: Validity, biased Nomination: nominate coworkers for membership in highest group Rating: assess on dimension of job behavior using many different scales Ranking: best to worsto Subordinate: valuable source of information for managerial performance, anonymity requiredo Customer: best source for some jobs where supervisor has limited opportunity, can be biased- graphic rating scaleso among the oldest formats used in the evaluation of performanceo Consists of a number of traits or behaviors and the rater is asked to judge how much of each particular trait possesses.- behavioral (weighted) checklistso includes a series of items that have previously been weighted as to importance or effectiveness- forced choice checklistso items are matched on social desirability, difficult to tell which items lead to highest performance score. .o validity coefficients that were 50% larger than traditional methods- BARSo Similar to graphic rating scales except that they provide actual behavioraldescription as anchors along the scale. o Best known for painstaking process involved in their development. o Group of participants identifies and carefully defines several dimensions as important for the job. - BOSo Focuses on the frequency of critical incidentso Uses employee involvement in developmento Can be used in trainingo Instead of using anchors, asks about frequency of behaviorso More closely related to job analysis- 360 degree feedbacko method of performance appraisal in which multiple raters at various levels of the organization evaluate a target employee and the employee is provided with feedback from these sourceso Involvement increases satisfaction w/ processo Provides multiple viewpointso Difficult to combine datao Potentially fuels office politic- rating errors (leniency/severity, central tendency, halo/horns, primacy/recency, similar-to-me)o Leniency: rate highero Severity: rate lowero Central Tendency: use only midpointo Halo/Horns: tendency to use global evaluation o Primacy: most initial observationso Recency: recent interactions o Similar to me: more favorable to like them- frame of reference trainingo type of training designed to enhance raters’ observational and categorization skills so that all raters share a common frame of reference and improve rater accuracy- rater error trainingo type of training originally developed to reduce rater errors by focusing on describing errors like halo to raters and showing them how to avoid making such errors- characteristics of effective performance feedbacko Specific, informative, not focus on general outcomeChapter 8- training definitiono formal procedures that a company utilizes to facilitate learning so the resulting behavior contributes to the attainment of company’s goals and objectives- needs analysis (organizational, task, person, demographics) o training needs exist? o Organizational: determine short and long term goals and compare those to the accomplishments, therefore can identify what is not being reachedo Task: examine task requirements for successful conducto Person: focus on employees who need training. How well employees are carrying out responsibilities and duties.o Demographics: take into account demographic make up. Determine specific training needs of groups. - training objectiveso intending to teach people something, specify what that is- training criteriao criteria for training programs, criteria for the criteria, used in evaluation of training- distributed vs. massed practiceo Distributed: practice divided into segments, learning skills and long term retention (low complexity like psychomotor)o Massed: one time without breaks- overlearning/automaticityo process of giving trainees continued practice even after appear to master behavior, high level of learning- transfer of training (positive/negative)o extent to which material skills or procedures learned in training are taken back to the job and used in regular fashiono Positive: organizations goal. o Negative: performance declines as result of training. - readinesso possessing the background characteristics and necessary level of interest that make learning possible. - learning/active learningo Learning: relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience or practiceo Active Learning: facilitated if learner is active during learning period- transfer climateo consists of peer and supervisory support for transfer. - ways to improve training motivationo Lecturing: economical, many trained at one time. o On the Job: learn by watching, largely dependent on trainero Self Directed: work at own pace and remedy identified weaknesses. Info to learner while using learning principles to reward and motivate.o Work Simulators: designed to be as realistic as possible so trainees can transfer the skills they gain. o Audiovisual: multimedia presentations, greater

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PSU PSYCH 281 - Chapter 5

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