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Chapter 17 OutlineI. Cardiovascular Anatomya. SA Nodeb. Types of Muscle in the bodyi. Skeletal1. Unbranched, cylindrical and multinucleated myocytes, parallel myofiber bundles2. Stimulated by nerves neuromuscular junctionii. Cardiac1. Branched myocytes with 1-2 nuclei2. Stimulated by nerves neuromuscular junction3. Stimulates itself with the SA node, then the AV node, and then the Bundle of Hiss and purkinje fibersiii. Smooth1. Elongated, non striated myocytes with a single nucleusc. Musculaturei. Sarcomere = Z Line to Z Line, the functional unit of cardiac muscleii. Actin and Myosin overlap but don’t touch at the resting stateiii. Contraction1. Z Lines come towards each othera. Overlap space (A band) becomes bigger, A line shrinksd. Myocytesi. Divided by intercalated disks, gap junctions, electro-signal from 1 myocyte to another like “the wave”e. Z-Line, M Band, I Bandf. Sliding Filament Theoryi. Ca2+ into the SRii. Ca2+ binds to troponin and exposes myosin binding sites on actin filamentsiii. Myosin heads bind to actin, release of P initiates power strokeiv. Power stroke  myosin head changes conformation, filaments slide past each otherv. ADP is released, ATP binds to myosin causing it to release actinvi. ATP is hydrolyzed and the myosin heads returns to normal conformationvii. Ca2+ is returned to the SR, muscle relaxesg. PQRST Wavei. P = atrial contractionii. QRS = ventricular contractioniii. T = ventricular relaxationiv. Lubdub = systole (pause between is diastole)II. Cardiovascular Physiologya. Cardiac Cyclei. Echo = heart (ultrasounda)ii. Systole = contraction, increases pressure1. lubdubiii. Diastole = relaxationiv. Sounds1. 1st = closure of atrial vent, bi/tricuspid valve2. 2nd = closure of pulmonary/aortic valvesv. EEGvi. EMGIII. Lipid Metabolisma. Dietary Fati. 98-99% triglyceridesii. 102% cholesterol, phospholipids etc.b. Digestion occurs mostly in the intestine via intestinal and pancreatic lipases and bile acids, where triglycerides are broken down to monoglycerides and fatty acids. These are absorbed by the intestinal mucosa, where they combine to reproduce triglycerides. These triglycerides assemble into water-soluble chylomicrons.i. pancreatic lipases and bile acids  1 monoglyceride and 3 fatty acids = 1 triglyceridec. Triglyceridesi. Predominant form of fat in natureii. Function  provide energy to the celliii. Types of fatty acids1. Essential  cannot be synthesized by body (linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic acids) must be obtained through diet2. Nonessential  synthesized by the bodyiv. Plasma triglycerides derived from1. Intestinal mucosa  synthesized from dietary fat2. Livera. Fasting  liver releases VLDL due to triglycerideutilization by adipose tissue for energyb. Post-meal  dietary carbs taken up by liver and converted to triglycerides, then secreted as lipoproteinsd. Cholesteroli. Sources  15% diet, 85% synthesized from acetyl CoA by the liverii. Essential Functions1. Structural components of cell membranes2. Precursor for synthesis of bale salts, steroid hormones, and Vitamin Diii. Cholesterol and triglycerides are insoluble in water. They need to be transported to and from tissue cells bound to small lipid-protein complexes called lipoproteins1. Lipoproteins carries aldosterone/cortisole. Lipoproteinsi. Apoliprotein  markers for lipoproteinsii. Contain1. Triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, proteiniii. Variable Fat1. Higher lipid percentage means lower lipoprotein density2. Higher protein percentage means higher lipoprotein density3. More lipids/fat = lighter4. More protein = heavieriv. Types1. High density lipoprotein: HDLa. Carries fat away from tissues and to the liverb. Healthier2. Intermediate Density Lipoprotein: IDL3. Low Density Lipoprotein: LDL4. Very Low Density Lipoprotein: VLDLa. The worst! No protein, very lightb. High amounts5. The best ones have high protein and low fatf. Chylomicronsi. Produced by the intestine1. Bind and transport dietary lipids to hepatic and peripheral tissue2. Enter circulation, where triglyceride and cholesterol carriers esters bound to them are hydrolyzed. This produces chylomicron remnant particles3. Chylomicrom remnants are taken up by the liverii. Largest and least dense of lipoprotein particlesiii. All bad lipoproteins have Apo-B (marker for bad)1. Measured by blood

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UCF HSC 4555 - Chapter 17

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