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Chapter 91. Terms to know:a. Basophil (like mast cells)- blue/purple on a slide due to the histamine it releases (vasoactive- it acts on vessels)b. Eosinophil- red/orange, function?c. Neutrophils- most abundant WBC, the “first responders”- phagocytes: swallow debrisd. Macrophages- “2nd responders,” they call over monocytes to enter tissue and differentiate to macrophagese. Megakaryocytes- immature form of a thrombocytef. Plasma- secretes antibodies derived from B cell (mature form)2. Blood Cellsa. Myeloid- all long bones (sternum, humorus, femur)- bone marrowi. Pleuripotent- create stem cells to become whatever they wantb. Platelets- initiate blood clotting- from plasma/serum WBC’s- from thrombocytesc. Lymphoid-i. B cells- differentiate between plasma and memory cellsii. T cells-iii. NK cells-d. Hemapoietic- formation of blood or blood cellse. Dendritic- present antigen3. Types of Immunitya. Innate (natural) born with iti. First line of defenseii. No previous exposure to agent required, no immunological memoryiii. Nonspecific response: physical and chemical mechanical barriers, antigen-independent (reacts the same to each antigen)b. Adaptive (acquired) remembers and reacts faster for the second exposurei. Specific responseii. Immunological memory4. Adaptive Immunitya. More evolved than innate immunityb. Immune response to specific moleculesc. Develop immunological memoryd. Response enhances upon repeated exposure of the same agent5. Innate Immunity a. Celia- moves any foreign substance (nose, bronchials)b. Trachea- moves up to expel through coughingc. Mucous- sticky with celia, traps and moves out of the body, pH is neutral to basicd. Acid pH- stomach and urogenital, corrodes bacteria, “bacterialcidal”6. Innate Immunity a. Physical and Chemical barriersi. Intact skinii. Low pH: bactericidaliii. Normal skin flora: prevent colonization by pathogens1. Loss of normal flora allows resistant organisms and fungi to proliferate2. Normal skin flora- the good bacteria works and competes for spaceover bad bacteria. Antibiotics get rid of ALL bacteria- including the good bacteria. This is why it is a good idea to take probiotics oreat yogurt while taking antibiotics because it replaces the good bacteria back in your body7. Innate Immunity a. Mucous membranesi. Respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tractsii. Ciliated epithelial cells: trap and sweep away airborne particles and organismsiii. Goblet cells: produce mucus and secrete mucous cellsb. Natural secretionsi. Chemical barriers: enzymes in secretions inhibit invasion by organismsii. Tears, saliva, mucus, fatty acids, bile acidsc. Plasma proteinsi. Antimicrobial/antiviralii. Acute phase reactantsiii. Complement cascades and componentsiv. TNF (tumor necrosis factor), IFN (interferon), opsonins (proteins that coatforeign substances and attract WBC to foreign substances and degrade them (chemotaxis movement)v. Complement- tiny immune proteins start off as C1 and stimulate because of foreign substances and activate C2, etc.vi. Cascade to know:1. C7 Membrane2. C8 → form → Attack3. C9 Complex8. Innate Defenses and Inflammation a. Three purposes of inflammatory responsei. Neutralize and destroy invading and harmful agentsii. Limit spread of harmful agents to other tissuesiii. Prepare damaged tissue for repairb. Cardinal Signs of Inflammation KNOW ALL CARDINAL SIGNS (IN ENGLISHAND LATIN FORMS)i. Rubor (red), dolor (pain), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), functio laesa (lossof function)ii. Acts on normal tissue to diffuse all overiii. Inflammation= all tissues affected are damagediv. Auto-immune9. Inflammation a. Phases of the inflammatory responsei. Increased blood flow to siteii. Increased vascular permeabilityiii. Leukocyte recruitment and emigration iv. Phagocytosisv. Chemokines- attract more neutrophils1. More macrophages, the more histamine vasodilates vesselsa. More blood, heat, and redness makes the vessels more permeable which allows fluids to enter the injury site and swell10. Inflammation a. Causes of inflammation:i. Endogenous- inside tissues1. Tissue ischemiaii. Exogenous- outside tissues (chemical agents)1. Physical agents: burns, radiation2. Chemical agents: acids, corrosives3. Microbial: most common, gram negative bacteria endotoxins/LPS, exotoxinsb. Inflammation can benefit or harm host11. Types of Inflammationa. Acutei. Short duration: less than 2 weeksii. Discrete set of events (how it started, how it looked)b. Chronic i. Longer durationii. Diffuseiii. Can result in scar tissue and deformity12. 12. Immune Systema. Immunogeni. Substance capable of eliciting a humeral or cellular immune responseb. Antigeni. Protein that stimulates antibody productionii. Binds to produced antibody: Ag-Ab complexiii. Epitope: specific site on Ag where antibody/T cell receptor bind13. Immunoglobulinsa. IgGi. Major immunoglobulin in bloodii. 4 subclassesb. IgMi. Largest immunoglobulinc. IgAi. Secretoryii. Present in body fluidsiii. 2 subclassesd. IgEi. Allergies, Parasitese. IgDi. Regulates B cell activation14. Lymphoid Organsa. Primary Lymphoid Organsi. Bone Marrow: produce B cells over entire lifetimeii. Thymus: produce T cells until host reaches pubertyb. Secondary Lymphoid Organsi. Lymph nodes, spleen, Peyer’s patches15. Immune Response: Humerala. B lymphocyte  Plasma Cell  AntibodyORB lymphocyte  Memory B16. Immune Response: Cell mediateda. From bone marrow stem cell, migrate to thymus and become immature T cellsb. Immature T cells undergo positive and negative selectionc. T cells encounter specific antigen and become activated17. Immune Response: Primarya. IgM antibody appears upon first exposure to antigen, then IgG18. Immune Response: Secondarya. Follows re-exposure to the same antigenb. Larger quantity of IgGc. Shorter response time, and longer lasting due to memory


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UCF HSC 4555 - Chapter 9

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