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Fabrics with Special Features• Moisture transport moves moisture away from skin• Comfort cooling• Hollow core fibers trap heat• Wool is only natural fiber with hollow core• Wicking- hydrophobic fibers• Push/Pull Effect- fabric made with different fibers on both sides; hydrophobic on skin side, hydrophilic on environment side• Waterproof Breathable fabrics transports moisture from inside out and air from the outside in• Poromeric• Has a membrane of breathable yet completely waterproof fabric• Waterproof: permanent because of laminate, water sits on outside of fabric• Water Resistant: water seeps into top layers• Temp./Humidity gradient- moves warm/moist air outside of clothing• Thermal Insulation prevents loss of body heat dependent on the fabrics• Dead air- still air; perfect insulator• Fabrics with poor cover allows cold air in and is bad• Wetness increases heat loss; hydrophobic fibers for wicking• Batting (textiles ability to not mat or become thin) aids in insulation; usually cotton and polyester• Thinsulate and Primaloft• Thermolite, Polartec• Electrotextiles or smart fabrics have flexible electronic circuitry; solar cells, batteries, and medical monitoring• Phase Change Materials: substance that alternates between being a solid (gives off heat) and liquid state• Industrial Fabrics are engineered to meet special performance requirements • Finished product• Consumed in process• Combines with other materials• Geotextiles are used in construction and vicil engineering applications• EX. Drainage, filtration, erosion control, stabilization, protection, moisture barriers, etc. • Biotechnology: implementation of textiles within the body to help heal• EX. Mesh in hernia repairs, regenerated tendons and connective tissues, heart valces, vessels, etc. • Specialty Fibers: • Cordura Nylon (Invista TM)• Kevlar and Nomex aramid fibers (Dupont TM)• Spectra fiber is 15 times stronger than steel, more durable than polyester, and has a specific strength that is up to 40% greater than that of aramid fiber• Leather• Excellent air and water vapor permeable textile• Split leather: thicker hides cut into thinner layers• Full-grain: leather that hasn't been split• Suede leather: generally made from split leather• Tanning: chemical finish to make skin pliable, water and rot resistant • Top grain is highest quality• Patent leather: high gloss, durable; made by applying successive coats of polyurethane • Reconstituted leather: ground leather pieces bound together with urethane • Suede: skin is sanded on flesh side• Nubuck: sanded on grain side produces a velvety hand• Fur• Quality is affected by age, health, and season when the animal was killed • Dyeing, pluck and sheer, clipped, groove (adds dimensional properties)• Many marketing problems because of animal rights groupsCare and Renovation of Textiles• Colorfastness: related to chemistry of fibers, dyes, and pigments; penetration and fixation• Bleeding: loss of color in water• Fading: color loss due to perspiration, gas fumes, sunlight; dyes degraded• Migration: color movement to adjacent areas or fabrics- poor colorfastness on red thread• Crocking: color transfer to another fabric or skin from rubbing together• Tendering: destruction of fabric due to reaction of dye and fiber; caused by heat, light, atmospheric contamination• Frosting: color portion of fabric lost by abrasion• Care: the procedures to remove soil and return products to new or nearly new conditions (e.i. storage conditions)• Care Labeling Regulation: permanent label that contains care instructions, including words or symbols about washing, drying, ironing, bleaching, warnings orprecautions and dry cleaning• Water soluble soils: can be dissolved and removed by immersion in water• Non water soluble soils or organic soils are removed by the assistance of a detergent or soap• Soaps: made of sodium salts of a fatty acid• Detergent: synthetic detergents produced thru chemistry• Surfactants: substances that lower the surface tension • Additives: bleaches, water softeners, fabric softeners, starches, fragrances, enzymes, pretreatment • Perchlorethylene or perc is the most used dry cleaning solvent • Big environmental impact• Carcinogen• Hydrocarbons: dry cleaning solvent; toxicity and environmental impact• Liquid CO2 could be new dry cleaning solvent but its


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CSU DM 120 - Fabrics with Special Features

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